澳大利亚图文巴生物Essay代写:加勒比岛屿

最丰富和最着名的鬣蜥类型是绿鬣蜥(Iguana鬣蜥)。 它们的平均尺寸为6.6英尺,重达11磅。 它们的绿色有助于在灌木丛中伪装它们,它们的身体上有一排刺,起到防御的作用。 根据物种的不同,鬣蜥生活在各种栖息地,包括沙漠,岩石区域,沼泽,热带雨林和低地。 在整个墨西哥,中美洲,加勒比群岛和巴西南部都有绿鬣蜥。 居住在加勒比岛屿上的鬣蜥物种统称为岩鬣蜥。 沙漠鬣蜥在美国西南部和墨西哥发现,而两种海洋鬣蜥栖息在加拉巴哥群岛。 澳大利亚图文巴生物Essay代写:加勒比岛屿 The most abundant and well-known type of iguana is the green iguana (Iguana iguana). They have an average size of 6.6 feet and weigh up to 11 pounds. Their green color helps to camouflage them in the bushes, and they have a row of thorns on their bodies that act as defenses. Iguanas live in a variety of habitats, including deserts, rocky areas, swamps, tropical rainforests and lowlands, depending on the species. There are green iguanas throughout Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean Islands and southern Brazil. The iguana species that live on the Caribbean islands are collectively referred to as rock iguanas. Desert iguanas are found in the southwestern United States and Mexico, while two marine iguanas inhabit the Galapagos Islands....
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新西兰梅西大学生物学论文代写:种群生物学

现代进化理论综合的一部分涉及种群生物学,并且在更小的层面上涉及群体遗传学。由于进化是以种群内的单位来衡量的,只有种群才能进化而不是个体,因此种群生物学和种群遗传是通过自然选择进化论的复杂部分。当查尔斯达尔文首次发表他的进化和自然选择思想时,尚未发现遗传学领域。由于追踪等位基因和遗传学是人口生物学和群体遗传学中非常重要的一部分,达尔文并没有完全涵盖他的书中的这些想法。现在,凭借更多的技术和知识,我们可以将更多的人口生物学和群体遗传纳入进化论。这样做的一种方法是通过等位基因的合并。人口生物学家研究基因库和人群中所有可用的等位基因。然后,他们试图追溯这些等位基因的起源,以便了解它们的起始位置。等位基因可以通过系统发育树上的各种谱系追溯到它们聚合或重新聚集的位置(另一种观察方式是等位基因彼此分支)。特征总是在称为最近共同祖先的点上合并。在最近的共同祖先之后,等位基因分离并演变成新的特征,并且很可能是种群产生新物种。与Hardy-Weinberg均衡非常相似的聚结理论有一些假设可以通过偶然事件消除等位基因的变化。聚结理论假设没有随机遗传流或等位基因进入或离开群体的遗传漂移,自然选择在给定时间段内对选定群体不起作用,并且没有重组等位基因形成新的或更复杂的等位基因。如果这是正确的,那么可以找到两个不同类似物种谱系的最新共同祖先。如果上述任何一个在起作用,那么在最新的共同祖先可以针对这些物种确定之前,必须克服几个障碍。随着技术和对聚结理论的理解变得更容易获得,伴随它的数学模型已被调整。对数学模型的这些改变使得人口生物学和群体遗传学中的一些先前的抑制性和复杂性问题得到了解决,然后可以使用该理论来使用和检查所有类型的种群。 新西兰梅西大学生物学论文代写:种群生物学 Part of the synthesis of modern evolutionary theory involves population biology and involves population genetics on a smaller scale. Since evolution is measured in units within a population, only populations can evolve rather than individuals, so population biology and population inheritance are complex parts of evolutionary theory through natural selection. When Charles Darwin first published his thoughts on evolution and natural selection, he had not yet discovered the field of genetics. Since tracking alleles and genetics are a very important part of population biology and population genetics, Darwin does not fully cover these ideas in his book. Now, with more technology and knowledge, we can incorporate more population biology and population genetics into evolution. One way to do this is through the combination of alleles. Population biologists study gene banks and all available alleles in the population. They then attempted to trace the origin of these alleles in order to understand their starting position. Alleles can be traced back to...
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新加坡管理大学Essay代写:语言学方法

“非常有趣的是,Jespersen(1922:392-442)非常详细地预测了这些关于语言和音乐以及语言和舞蹈的共性的现代观点。在他关于语言起源的猜测中,他的观点是,一方面说唱语言之前必须先唱歌,一方面是满足性(或爱)需要的功能,另一方面是协调集体工作的需要。反过来,他们的起源是[查尔斯]达尔文1871年的着作“人类的下降”:我们可以从一个广泛传播的类比中得出结论,这种权力在性别求爱期间特别强调,用于表达各种情感。通过清晰的音乐呐喊声模仿可能会产生表达各种复杂情感的词语。上面提到的现代学者同意拒绝众所周知的场景,根据这种场景,语言起源于一个系统单音节咕噜声的声音,具有指向事物的(指称)功能。相反,他们提出了一个场景,根据这个场景,参考意义被慢慢嫁接在几乎自主的悠扬声音上。“(Esa Itkonen,类比结构和过程:语言学方法,认知心理学和科学哲学。约翰本杰明斯,2005)”今天,关于语言起源问题的意见仍然存在很大分歧。一方面,有些人认为语言是如此复杂,并且在人类条件中根深蒂固,它必须在很长一段时间内缓慢发展。事实上,有些人认为它的根源可以追溯到Homo habilis,这是一种生活在非洲的小脑袋原始人,距离两百万年前不远。另一方面,像罗伯特贝里克和[诺姆]乔姆斯基这样的人认为人类最近在一次突然的事件中获得了语言。除了不同的灭绝原始人种被视为语言缓慢进化轨迹的开创者之外,没有人处于这个中间。 “这种深刻的观点二分法能够持续存在(不仅在语言学家之间,而且在古人类学家,考古学家,认知科学家和其他人之间)只要有人记得,就是由于一个简单的事实:至少直到最近写作系统的出现,语言在任何持久的记录中都没有留下痕迹。是否有任何早期人类拥有语言或不具备语言,必须从间接代理指标中推断出来。并且观点在可接受的问题上存在很大差异。代理。” 新加坡管理大学Essay代写:语言学方法 “Very interestingly, Jespersen (1922:392-442) predicted these modern views on language and music as well as the commonalities of language and dance in great detail. In his speculation about the origin of language, his view is that on the one hand Before singing a vocal language, you must sing first, on the one hand, to satisfy the needs of sex (or love), and on the other hand, to coordinate the needs of collective work. In turn, their origin is [Charles] Darwin's 1871 work "Human decline ": We can draw conclusions from a widely disseminated analogy that is particularly emphasized during gender courtship and is used to express emotions. Imitation through clear music shouts may produce words that express complex emotions. The modern scholars mentioned above agree to reject well-known scenes. According to this scenario, the language originates from the sound of a system monosyllabic hum, with the function of pointing to things. Instead, they propose a scene according...
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新加坡国立大学政治Assignment代写:指挥官

到2009年,有人暗示金正日选择金正恩作为“伟大的接班人”,跟随他成为最高领袖。 2009年4月,金被任命为强大的国防委员会主席,并被称为“辉煌同志”。到2010年9月,金正恩被任命为国家安全部部长和陆军四星将军。。 在2011年,很明显金正恩将接替他的父亲。 金正日于2011年12月17日去世后不久,金正恩被宣布为最高领导人,当时这是一个非正式的头衔,公开确立了他作为朝鲜政府和军方领导人的地位。 不到30岁,他已成为他的国家的第三任领导人和世界第四大军队的指挥官。 新加坡国立大学政治Assignment代写:指挥官 By 2009, it was suggested that Kim Jong-il chose Kim Jong-un as the "great successor" and followed him as the supreme leader. In April 2009, Kim was appointed as the chairman of the powerful National Defense Commission and was known as the "Glorious Comrade." By September 2010, Kim Jong-un was appointed Minister of National Security and Army Four-Star General. . In 2011, it was clear that Kim Jong-un would succeed his father. Shortly after Kim Jong Il’s death on December 17, 2011, Kim Jong-un was declared the top leader. At the time, it was an informal title that publicly established his status as the North Korean government and military leader. Less than 30 years old, he has become the third leader of his country and the commander of the fourth largest army in the world....
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新加坡管理大学Essay代写:原始语言

“人类的牙齿是直立的,不像猿类那样向外倾斜,它们的高度大致均匀。这些特征......非常有助于发出诸如f或v之类的声音。人类的嘴唇比找到的更复杂的肌肉束带。在其他灵长类动物中,它们产生的灵活性肯定有助于发出像p,b和m这样的声音。事实上,b和m声音在人类婴儿第一年发出的声音中得到最广泛的证明,无论他们使用哪种语言父母正在使用。“ (George Yule,The Study of Language,5th ed.Cambridge University Press,2014)“在与其他类人猿分裂后人类声带的演变中,成人喉部下降到较低位置。语音学家Philip Lieberman有说服力地认为人类降低喉部的最终原因是其产生不同元音的功能。这是一种自然选择的更有效沟通的例子。“婴儿出生时喉部处于高位,如猴子。这是有用的,因为窒息的风险降低,婴儿还没有说话。大约在第一年结束时,人类喉部下降到接近成人的降低位置。这是个体发育重现系统发育的案例,个体的成长反映了物种的进化。“(James R. Hurford,The Origins of Language。牛津大学出版社,2014)”语言准备好的现代儿童在他们面前贪婪地学习词汇开始使语法话语长几个字。因此,我们假设在语言的起源中,一个单词阶段先于我们的远程祖先进入语法的第一步。 “原始语言”一词被广泛用于描述这个单词阶段,其中有词汇但没有语法。“(James R. Hurford,The Origins of Language。牛津大学出版社,2014)”关于语言如何起源的猜测和进化在思想史上占有重要地位,它与聋人签名语言的性质和一般人类手势行为的问题密切相关。可以说,从系统发育的角度来看,人类手语的起源与人类语言的起源是一致的;手语,也就是说,可能是第一批真正的语言。这不是一个新观点 - 它可能与人类语言可能已经开始的非宗教性猜测一样古老。“(David F. Armstrong和Sherman E. Wilcox,The Gestural Origin of Language.Oxford University Press,2007)” [A]对可见手势的物理结构的分析提供了对语法起源的见解,也许是学生语言起源和演变面临的最困难的问题。 。 ..语法的起源将命名转化为语言,使人类能够对事物和事件之间的关系进行评论和思考,也就是说,使他们能够表达复杂的思想,最重要的是,与他人分享。 “我们并不是第一个提出语言手势来源的人。[戈登] Hewes(1973; 1974; 1976)是手势起源理论的第一批现代支持者之一。[Adam] Kendon(1991:215)也暗示“第一种可以说是以语言方式运作的行为本来就必须是手势。”对于Kendon而言,与大多数考虑手势语言起源的人一样,手势与言语和发声相对立。 新加坡管理大学Essay代写:原始语言 "Human teeth are erect, not tilted outward like scorpions, and their height is roughly uniform. These features... are very helpful in making sounds such as f or v. Human lips are better than finding More complex muscle bands. In other primates, the flexibility they produce will certainly help to make sounds like p, b, and m. In fact, b and m sounds are issued in the first year of human babies. The voice is the most widely proven, no matter which language they use in their parents." (George Yule, The Study of Language, 5th ed. Cambridge University Press, 2014) "In the evolution of human vocal cords after splitting with other apes The adult's throat has dropped to a lower position....
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澳大利亚新南威尔士大学Essay代写:神圣的起源

表达语言起源是指与人类社会中语言的产生和发展有关的理论。几个世纪以来,提出了许多理论 - 几乎所有理论都受到挑战,打折和嘲笑。 (看看语言来自哪里?)1866年,巴黎语言学会禁止对该主题进行任何讨论:“该协会不接受任何关于语言起源或创造通用语言的交流。”当代语言学家罗宾斯伯林说:“任何在语言文献中广泛阅读的人都无法逃避对巴黎语言学家的悄悄同情。关于这一主题已经写了大量的废话”(The Talking Ape,2005)。然而,近几十年来,正如Christine Kenneally所说,来自遗传学,人类学和认知科学等不同领域的学者们正在进行“跨学科,多维寻宝”,以了解语言是如何开始的。她说,这是“当今科学中最难的问题”(The First Word,2007)。 “神圣的起源[是]猜测人类语言起源于上帝的礼物。没有学者今天认真对待这个想法。” (RL Trask,学生语言和语言学词典,1997; rpt.Routledge,2014)“已经提出了许多不同的解释来解释人类如何获得语言 - 其中许多可以追溯到巴黎禁令时期。更多的幻想解释被赋予绰号,主要是嘲笑解雇的效果。语言在人类中演化以协助协同工作的场景(如同在装载码头的史前等效物)被昵称'yo-heave-ho'模型。有'bow-wow'模式,其中语言起源于动物哭泣的模仿。在'poo-poo'模型中,语言起源于情感插入。“在二十世纪,和特别是在过去的几十年里,对语言起源的讨论变得可敬,甚至时髦。然而,一个主要问题仍然存在;大多数关于语言起源的模型都不容易形成可测试的假设,或任何形式的严格测试。什么数据可以让我们得出结论,一种模式或另一种模式最能解释语言是如何产生的?“(Norman A. Johnson,Darwinian Detectives:Revealing the Gene History of Genes and Genomes.Ocford University Press,2007)”而不是查看类型作为人类语言的来源,我们可以看到人类拥有的物理特征的类型,特别是那些与其他生物不同的物理特征,这些生物可能能够支持语音生成。 澳大利亚新南威尔士大学Essay代写:神圣的起源 The origin of expression language refers to the theory related to the generation and development of language in human society. For centuries, many theories have been put forward - almost all theories have been challenged, discounted and ridiculed. (See where the language comes from?) In 1866, the Paris Language Institute banned any discussion of the subject: "The association does not accept any exchange of language origins or the creation of a common language." Contemporary linguist Robin Spence said: “Anyone who reads extensively in the linguistic literature cannot escape the quiet sympathy of the Parisian linguists. A lot of nonsense has been written about this subject” (The Talking Ape, 2005). However, in recent decades, as Christine Kenneally said, scholars from different fields such as genetics, anthropology and cognitive science are conducting “interdisciplinary, multidimensional treasure hunt”...
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新交迫国立大学政治Assignment代写:选举团制度

可以推翻民众投票:在迄今为止的五次总统选举中 -  1824年,1876年,1888年,2000年和2016年 - 一位候选人失去了全国范围的民众投票,但当选总统选举赢得选举团投票。这种超越“多数意志”的潜力通常被认为是废除选举团的主要原因。给摇摆州带来太大的权力:14个摇摆州的选民的需求和问题 - 历史上投票给共和党和民主党总统候选人的选民 - 比其他州的选民获得更高的考虑。候选人很少访问可预测的非摇摆州,如德克萨斯州或加利福尼亚州。非摇摆州的选民将会看到更少的竞选广告,并且在摇摆州内的选民中更少参与他们的意见。结果,摇摆州可能不一定代表整个国家,拥有太多的选举权。让人们觉得他们的投票无关紧要:在选举团制度下,虽然重要,但不是每一次投票都“重要”。例如,民主党在自由倾斜的加利福尼亚投票对选举的最终结果的影响要小得多。在宾夕法尼亚州,佛罗里达州和俄亥俄州这样一个不太可预测的摇摆州。由此对非摆动状态缺乏兴趣,导致美国传统选民投票率低。 新交迫国立大学政治Assignment代写:选举团制度 Can overthrow the popular vote: in the five presidential elections so far - 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016 - one candidate lost a national vote, but the presidential election won the electoral college vote . This potential to transcend the “majority of will” is often considered to be the main reason for the abolition of the electoral college. Bringing too much power to the swing state: the needs and problems of voters in 14 swing states - voters who voted for Republican and Democratic presidential candidates in history - have higher considerations than voters in other states. Candidates rarely visit predictable non-swing states such as Texas or California. Voters in non-swing states will see fewer campaign ads and less participate in their opinions among voters in the swing state. As a result, the swing state may not necessarily represent the entire country and has too many voting rights. Let people think...
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澳大利亚墨尔本大学Essay代写:横向抑制

在上图中,两个不同宽度且颜色均匀(灰色)的矩形被设置在背景上,从顶部到底部具有从暗到亮的梯度。两个矩形在顶部看起来较浅而在底部看起来较暗。由于横向抑制,来自每个矩形顶部的光(相对于较暗的背景)在大脑中产生比来自矩形下部的相同光(相对于较亮背景)更强的神经元响应。横向抑制也发生在触觉或体感感知中。通过激活皮肤中的神经受体来感知触觉。皮肤有多个感受到施加压力的感受器。侧向抑制增强了更强和更弱的触摸信号之间的对比度。较强的信号(在接触点处)比较弱的信号(接触点的外围)更大程度地抑制相邻的信号。此活动允许大脑确定准确的接触点。具有较大接触敏锐度的身体区域,例如指尖和舌头,具有较小的感受野和较高的感觉受体集中。 澳大利亚墨尔本大学Essay代写:横向抑制 In the above image, two rectangles of different widths and uniform colors (gray) are placed on the background with a gradient from dark to light from top to bottom. The two rectangles look lighter at the top and darker at the bottom. Due to lateral suppression, light from the top of each rectangle (relative to the darker background) produces a stronger neuronal response in the brain than the same light from the lower part of the rectangle (relative to the brighter background). Lateral inhibition also occurs in tactile or somatosensory perception. The sense of touch is sensed by activating neural receptors in the skin. There are multiple receptors on the skin that feel pressure. Lateral suppression enhances the contrast between stronger and weaker touch signals. A stronger signal (at the point of contact) has a weaker signal (the periphery of the contact point) that suppresses adjacent signals to a greater extent. This activity allows the brain to determine the exact...
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新加坡政府大学Assignment代写:还原性谬误

只要事件的一系列实际原因被减少或增加到所谓的原因与实际效果之间不再存在真正的,因果关系的点,就会发生称为过度简化和夸大的因果关系谬误。换句话说,多种原因被减少到只有一个或几个(过度简化)或者几个原因被乘以许多(夸大)。也被称为“还原性谬误”,因为它涉及减少原因的数量,过度简化似乎更经常发生,也许是因为有太多表面上很好的理由来简化事物。善意的作家和演说者如果不小心,很容易陷入过度简化的陷阱。简化的一个动力是给所有希望改善写作风格的人提供的基本建议:不要陷入细节之中。良好的写作需要清晰准确,从而帮助人们理解一个问题,而不是让他们更加困惑。然而,在这个过程中,作者可以轻易地遗漏太多细节,省略需要包含的关键信息。另一个可能导致过度简化的重要动力是过度使用批判性思维中的一个重要工具:奥卡姆的剃刀。这是不假设事件的因素或原因太多而不是必要的原则,并且通常表示“更简单的解释是可取的”。虽然解释应该不是必要的复杂,但必须非常小心,不要构造一个不必要的复杂的解释。阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)的一句名言称:“一切都应尽可能简单,但并不简单。”以下是无神论者经常听到的过度简化的一个例子:自公立学校禁止有组织的祷告以来,学校暴力上升,学业成绩下降。因此,应该重新引入祷告,从而改善学业。这一论点显然受到过度简化的影响,因为它假设学校中的问题(暴力增加,学业成绩下降)可归因于一个原因:失去有组织的,国家强制的祈祷。社会中的无数其他因素被完全忽视,好像社会和经济条件没有以任何相关方式改变。在上面的例子中揭示问题的一种方法是稍微改写:自从种族隔离被禁止以来,学校暴力上升,学业成绩下降。 新加坡政府大学Assignment代写:还原性谬误 As long as a series of actual causes of an event are reduced or increased to the point where there is no real, causal relationship between the so-called cause and the actual effect, a causal relationship fall called excessive simplification and exaggeration occurs. In other words, multiple reasons are reduced to only one or a few (oversimplified) or several reasons multiplied by many (exaggerated). Also known as "reduction fallacy", because it involves reducing the number of causes, excessive simplification seems to occur more often, perhaps because there are too many ostensibly good reasons to simplify things. Well-intentioned writers and speakers can easily fall into the trap of oversimplification if they are not careful. One of the motivations for simplification is to give basic advice to anyone who wants to improve their writing style: don't fall into the details. Good writing needs to be clear and accurate, helping people understand a problem rather than making them more confused. However, in...
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新加坡国立大学文化Essay代写:虚假陈述

在该领域的早期历史(19世纪末/ 20世纪初),人类学家几乎都是欧洲人或美国人,他们认为他们认为是“原始”社会的研究是他们认为被西方影响“触及”的。 由于这种心态,该领域长期以来一直受到批评,因为它对非西方人的殖民主义,居高临下的态度及其对其文化的不准确表现; 例如,早期的人类学家经常写到非洲文化是静态的,不变的,这表明非洲人永远不会是现代的,他们的文化不会像西方文化那样经历变化。 在20世纪后期,像詹姆斯克利福德和乔治马库斯这样的人类学家解决了这些虚假陈述,这表明民族志学者更加意识到并预见到他们与研究对象之间不平等的权力关系。 新加坡国立大学文化Essay代写:虚假陈述 In the early history of the field (early 19th/early 20th century), anthropologists were almost all Europeans or Americans who believed that what they considered to be "primitive" society was that they believed to be "touched" by Western influences. Because of this mentality, the field has long been criticized because of its condescending attitude towards non-Western colonialism and its inaccurate expression of its culture; for example, early anthropologists often wrote that African culture is static The same, this shows that Africans will never be modern, and their culture will not experience changes like Western culture. In the late 20th century, anthropologists such as James Clifford and George Marcus solved these false statements, suggesting that ethnographers are more aware of and anticipate the unequal power relations between them and the subjects they study....
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