“虽然我们同意Kendon检查口语和签名语言,哑剧,图形描述和其他人类表现方式之间关系的策略,但我们并不相信将言语放在与言语相对的位置会导致出现一个有效的框架来理解出现对于我们来说,对于这个问题的答案,“如果语言是以手势开始的,为什么它不能保持这种状态?”就是这样。“用Ulrich Neisser(1976)的话说,所有的语言都是’发音性的’。 “我们并不是说这种语言是以手势开始并且变得有声。语言已经并且将始终是手势(至少在我们发展出可靠和普遍的精神心灵感应能力之前)。” (David F. Armstrong,William C. Stokoe和Sherman E. Wilcox,手势和语言的本质。剑桥大学出版社,1995)“如果,与[Dwight] Whitney一起,我们认为’语言’是一种复杂的工具它用于表达“思想”(正如他所说的那样 – 人们可能不希望今天这样说),然后手势就是“语言”的一部分。对于我们这些对这种方式构思的语言感兴趣的人,我们的任务必须包括制定所有与语言相关的手势的复杂方式,并说明每个组织与其他组织的区别。以及它们重叠的方式。这只能丰富我们对这些工具如何运作的理解。另一方面,如果我们用结构术语来定义“语言”,那么排除考虑大多数(如果不是全部的话)我今天已经说明了各种手势用法,我们可能会有失去重要特征的危险,因为语言如此定义,实际上是否能够成为一种交流工具。这种结构定义作为一种方便的方式是有价值的,作为一种划界方式。另一方面,从关于人类如何通过言语完成所有事情的综合理论的观点来看,这还不够。“(Adam Kendon,“语言和手势:统一或双重性?”语言和手势,David McNeill编辑。剑桥大学出版社,2000)“人类社会群体的规模引发了一个严重的问题:修饰是用于绑定灵长类动物之间社会群体的机制,但是人类群体是如此之大,以至于不可能投入足够的时间来培养这种规模的群体。有一种替代建议是,语言是作为一种设备而演变的。结合大型社会群体 – 换句话说,作为一种远距离修饰的形式。语言旨在传递的信息不是关于物理世界,而是关于社会世界。注意问题这里不是语法的演变,而是语言的演变。无论语言是进化为社会还是技术功能,语法都同样有用。“ (Robin I.A. Dunbar,“语言的起源和后续演变。”语言进化,由Morten H. Christiansen和Simon Kirby编辑。牛津大学出版社,2003)

加拿大谢布鲁克大学论文代写:语言的起源和后续演变

“Although we agree with Kendon’s strategy of examining the relationship between spoken and signed language, pantomime, graphic description and other human expressions, we do not believe that placing words in a position relative to speech leads to an effective framework to understand the emergence. For us, the answer to this question, “If the language starts with a gesture, why can’t it stay that way?” That’s it. “In the words of Ulrich Neisser (1976), all languages ​​are ‘pronounced’. “We are not saying that this language starts with gestures and becomes vocal. Language has and will always be gestures (at least before we develop reliable and universal mental telepathy).” (David F. Armstrong, William C Stokoe and Sherman E. Wilcox, the essence of gestures and language. Cambridge University Press, 1995) “If, together with [Dwight] Whitney, we think that ‘language’ is a complex tool that is used to express “thoughts” ( As he said – people may not want to say this today, and then gestures are part of “language.” For those of us who are interested in the language we conceive in this way, our task must include the development of all language-related The complex way of gestures and the difference between each organization and other organizations, and the way they overlap. This only enriches our understanding of how these tools work. On the other hand, if we use structural terms to define “language,” Then exclude most, if not all, of the various gestures I have explained today, I There may be danger of losing important features, because language is so defined and can actually be a communication tool. This structural definition is valuable as a convenient way, as a means of demarcation. From the point of view of the comprehensive theory of how humans accomplish everything through words, this is not enough.” (Adam Kendon, “Language and Gestures: Unity or Duality?” Language and Gestures, Edited by David McNeill. Cambridge University Press, 2000) “The size of the human social group raises a serious problem: modification is used to bind the spirit The mechanism of social groups between elongates, but the human population is so large that it is impossible to invest enough time to cultivate groups of this size. An alternative suggestion is that language evolves as a device. Combine large social groups – in other words, as a form of long-distance modification. The language is designed to convey information not about the physical world, but about the social world. Attention to problems is not the evolution of grammar, but the evolution of language. language for the evolution of social or technical functions, grammar are equally useful. “(Robin IA Dunbar,” the origin and subsequent evolution of language. “language evolution, edited by Morten H. Christiansen and Simon Kirby. Oxford University Press, 2003)

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