神奇的现实主义,或魔幻现实主义,是一种将幻想和神话融入日常生活的文学方法。什么是真的?想象中的是什么?在魔幻现实主义的世界里,普通人变得非同寻常,神奇变得平凡。也被称为“奇妙的现实主义”或“梦幻般的现实主义”,神奇的现实主义不是一种风格或类型,而是一种质疑现实本质的方式。在书籍,故事,诗歌,戏剧和电影中,事实叙事和遥远的幻想相结合,揭示了对社会和人性的见解。 “魔幻现实主义”一词也与现实和具象的艺术作品 – 绘画,绘画和雕塑 – 有关,暗示着隐藏的意义。栩栩如生的图像,如上面显示的Frida Kahlo肖像,呈现出神秘和迷人的气息。关于将普通人的故事注入陌生感并没有什么新鲜事。学者们已经在EmilyBrontë充满热情,闹鬼的Heathcliff(1848年的呼啸山庄)和Franz Kafka不幸的Gregor身上发现了神奇的现实主义元素,后者变成了一只巨大的昆虫(The Metamorphosis,1915)。然而,“魔幻现实主义”这一表达源于二十世纪中期出现的特定艺术和文学运动。 1925年,评论家弗朗茨·罗(Franz Roh,1890-1965)创造了Magischer Realismus(魔幻现实主义)这个术语来描述德国艺术家的作品,这些艺术家用怪异的超脱描绘了常规的主题。到了20世纪40年代和50年代,批评家和学者们将这一标签应用于各种传统的艺术。乔治亚·奥基夫(1887-1986)的巨幅花卉画作,​​弗里达·卡罗(1907-1954)的心理自画像以及爱德华·霍珀(1882-1967)沉思的都市场景都属于魔幻现实主义的范畴。 。在文学中,除了视觉艺术家悄然神秘的魔幻现实主义之外,魔幻现实主义演变为一个独立的运动。古巴作家亚历山大·卡彭西尔(1904-1980)在1949年发表他的论文“在西班牙美国的奇妙真实上”时,引入了“真实的maravilloso”(“奇妙的真实”)的概念.Carpentier相信拉丁美洲及其戏剧性的历史和地理,在世界的眼中呈现出梦幻般的光环。1955年,文学评论家安德尔·弗洛雷斯(1900-1992)采用了神奇的现实主义(与魔幻现实主义相对)来描述拉丁美洲的着作。作者将“共同的和日常的变成了令人敬畏的和不真实的”。根据弗洛雷斯的说法,神奇的现实主义始于1935年阿根廷作家豪尔赫路易斯博尔赫斯(JorgeLuísBorges,1899-1986)。其他评论家认为不同的作家有机会推出该运动。然而,博尔赫斯确实为拉丁美洲的魔幻现实主义奠定了基础,这种现实主义被认为是独特的,与卡夫卡等欧洲作家的作品截然不同。来自这一传统的其他西班牙裔作家包括Isabel Allende,MiguelÁngelAsturias,Laura Esquivel,Elena Garro,RómuloGallegos,GabrielGarcíaMárquez和Juan Rulfo。 “超现实主义贯穿街头,”GabrielGarcíaMárquez(1927-2014)在接受大西洋采访时说。加西亚·马尔克斯(GarcíaMárquez)回避了“神奇的现实主义”一词,因为他认为特殊情况是他在哥伦比亚本土的南美生活的预期部分。为了对他那神奇但真实的写作进行抽样,首先是简短的“一个极大翼的老人”和“世界上最英俊的溺水者”。今天,神奇的现实主义被视为一种国际潮流,在许多国家都能找到表达书评人,书籍卖家,文学代理人,公关人员和作者自己都把这个标签作为一种描述幻想和传奇的现实场景的作品的方式。魔法现实主义的元素可以在凯特阿特金森,伊塔洛的作品中找到。 Calvino,Angela Carter,Neil Gaiman,GünterGrass,Mark Helprin,Alice Hoffman,Abe Kobo,Haruki Murakami,Toni Morrison,Salman Rushdie,Derek Walcott以及世界各地的无数其他作家。

美国杜克大学文学Essay代写:魔幻现实主义简介

Magical realism, or magic realism, is an approach to literature that weaves fantasy and myth into everyday life. What’s real? What’s imaginary? In the world of magical realism, the ordinary becomes extraordinary and the magical becomes commonplace. Also known as “marvelous realism,” or “fantastic realism,” magical realism is not a style or a genre so much as a way of questioning the nature of reality. In books, stories, poetry, plays, and film, factual narrative and far-flung fantasies combine to reveal insights about society and human nature. The term “magic realism” is also associated with realistic and figurative artworks — paintings, drawings, and sculpture — that suggest hidden meanings. Lifelike images, such as the Frida Kahlo portrait shown above, take on an air of mystery and enchantment. There’s nothing new about infusing strangeness into stories about otherwise ordinary people. Scholars have identified elements of magical realism in Emily Brontë’s passionate, haunted Heathcliff (Wuthering Heights, 1848) and Franz Kafka’s unfortunate Gregor, who turns into a giant insect (The Metamorphosis, 1915). However, the expression “magical realism” grew out of specific artistic and literary movements that emerged during the mid-twentieth century. In 1925, critic Franz Roh (1890–1965) coined the term Magischer Realismus (Magic Realism) to describe the work of German artists who depicted routine subjects with eerie detachment. By the 1940s and 1950s, critics and scholars were applying the label to art from a variety of traditions. The enormous floral paintings by Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986), the psychological self-portraits of Frida Kahlo (1907-1954), and the brooding urban scenes by Edward Hopper (1882–1967) all fall within the realm of magic realism. In literature, magical realism evolved as a separate movement, apart from the quietly mysterious magic realism of visual artists. Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier (1904-1980) introduced the concept of “lo real maravilloso” (“the marvelous real”) when he published his 1949 essay, “On the Marvelous Real in Spanish America.” Carpentier believed that Latin America, with its dramatic history and geography, took on an aura of the fantastic in the eyes of the world. In 1955, literary critic Angel Flores (1900-1992) adopted the term magical realism (as opposed to magic realism) to describe the writings of Latin American authors who transformed “the common and the everyday into the awesome and the unreal.” According to Flores, magical realism began with a 1935 story by Argentine writer Jorge Luís Borges (1899-1986). Other critics have credited different writers for launching the movement. However, Borges certainly helped lay the groundwork for Latin American magical realism, which was seen as unique and distinct from the work of European writers like Kafka. Other Hispanic authors from this tradition include Isabel Allende, Miguel Ángel Asturias, Laura Esquivel, Elena Garro, Rómulo Gallegos, Gabriel García Márquez, and Juan Rulfo. “Surrealism runs through the streets,” Gabriel García Márquez (1927-2014) said in an interview with The Atlantic. García Márquez shunned the term “magical realism” because he believed that extraordinary circumstances were an expected part of South American life in his native Columbia. To sample his magical-but-real writing, begin with the short “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” and “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World.” Today, magical realism is viewed as an international trend, finding expression in many countries and cultures. Book reviewers, book sellers, literary agents, publicists, and authors themselves have embraced the label as a way to describe works that infuse realistic scenes with fantasy and legend. Elements of magical realism can be found in writings by Kate Atkinson, Italo Calvino, Angela Carter, Neil Gaiman, Günter Grass, Mark Helprin, Alice Hoffman, Abe Kobo, Haruki Murakami, Toni Morrison, Salman Rushdie, Derek Walcott, and countless other authors around the world.

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