对卡尔马克思,马克斯韦伯和ÉmileDurkheim的早期理论工作以及来自世界各地的许多其他哲学家和学者的社会功能以及知识和知识的影响存在兴趣,但该子领域开始凝结为匈牙利社会学家卡尔曼海姆于1936年出版了“意识形态与乌托邦”。曼海姆系统地摒弃了客观学术知识的观念,并提出了一个人的知识观点本质上与一个人的社会地位相关联的观点。他认为,真理只是存在于关系中的东西,因为思想发生在社会背景中,并且嵌入在思维主体的价值观和社会地位中。他写道,“意识形态研究的任务,试图摆脱价值判断,是要理解每个个体观点的狭隘性以及这些独特态度在整个社会过程中的相互作用。”通过明确说明在这些观察中,曼海姆以这种方式刺激了一个世纪的理论化和研究,并有效地建立了知识社会学。同时写作,记者和政治活动家安东尼奥·葛兰西为这个子领域做出了非常重要的贡献。对于知识分子及其在复制统治阶级权力和统治中的作用,葛兰西认为,客观性主张是政治主张,而知识分子虽然通常被认为是自主思想家,却产生了反映其阶级立场的知识。鉴于大多数人来自或渴望统治阶级,葛兰西认为知识分子是通过思想和常识维持统治的关键,并写道:“知识分子是主导群体的’代表’,行使社会霸权和政治的下属功能法国社会理论家米歇尔福柯在二十世纪后期对知识社会学作出了重大贡献。他的大部分着作都集中在医学和监狱等机构在产生人们知识方面的作用,特别是那些被认为是“离经叛道”的人。福柯理论化了制度产生话语的方式,这些话语用来创造主体和客体类别。社会等级。这些类别及其构成的等级制度来自并重现社会权力结构。他断言,通过创建类别来代表他人是一种权力形式。福柯认为,任何知识都不是中立的,它都与权力联系在一起,因此是政治性的。 1978年,美国巴勒斯坦批评理论家和后殖民学者爱德华赛义德发表了“东方主义”。这本书是关于学术制度与殖民主义,身份和种族主义的权力动态之间的关系。西方帝国成员用过的历史文本,信件和新闻说明了他们如何有效地创造了“东方”作为知识范畴。他将“东方主义”或学习“东方”的实践定义为“处理东方的企业机构 – 通过对其进行陈述,授权观察它,描述它,通过教导,解决它来处理它。对它的统治:简而言之,东方主义作为西方主义,重组,并拥有对东方的权威。“赛义德认为东方主义和”东方“的概念是创造西方主体和身份的基础,与东方其他人并列,被认为在智力,生活方式,社会组织方面具有优势,因此有权获得统治和资源。这项工作强调了塑造和复制知识的权力结构,并且仍然被广泛传授并适用于理解当今全球东西方和南北之间的关系。知识社会学史上其他有影响力的学者包括Marcel Mauss,Max Scheler,AlfredSchütz,Edmund Husserl,Robert K. Merton,Peter L. Berger和Thomas Luckmann(现实社会建构)。

美国科尔盖特大学论文代写:现实社会建构

Interested in the early theoretical work of Karl Marx, Max Weber and Émile Durkheim, as well as the social functions and knowledge and knowledge of many other philosophers and scholars from around the world, but the subfield began to condense into the Hungarian sociologist Kalmanheim In 1936, “Ideology and Utopia” was published. Mannheim systematically abandoned the notion of objective academic knowledge and proposed a view that a person’s knowledge view is essentially related to a person’s social status. He believes that truth is only something that exists in relationships, because thoughts occur in the social context and are embedded in the values and social status of the subject of thinking. He wrote, “The task of ideological research, trying to get rid of value judgments, is to understand the narrowness of each individual’s point of view and the interaction of these unique attitudes throughout the social process.” By clearly stating these observations, Mannhai In this way, Mum stimulated the theoreticalization and research of a century and effectively established the sociology of knowledge. At the same time writing, journalist and political activist Antonio Gramsci made a very important contribution to this subfield. For intellectuals and their role in replicating the power and rule of the ruling class, Gramsci believes that objectivity is a political claim, while intellectuals, although usually considered to be independent thinkers, produce knowledge that reflects their class position. Given that most people are from or eager to rule the class, Gramsci believes that intellectuals are the key to maintaining domination through thoughts and common sense, and writes: “Intellectuals are the ‘representatives’ of the dominant group, exercising social hegemony and the subordinate functions of politics. France Social theorist Michel Foucault made a significant contribution to the sociology of knowledge in the late twentieth century. Most of his work focused on the role of institutions such as medicine and prisons in generating knowledge, especially those considered to be Foucault theorized the way in which institutions produce discourses that are used to create subject and object categories. Social ranks. These categories and their constituent hierarchies come from and reproduce social power structures. He asserts that Creating categories to represent others is a form of power. Foucault believes that any knowledge is not neutral, it is linked to power and therefore political. In 1978, the American Palestinian critical theorist and post-colonial scholar Edwards Ede published “Orientalism.” This book is about academic institutions and colonialism, identity and species. The relationship between the power dynamics of ethnicism. The historical texts, letters and news used by members of the Western Empire illustrate how they effectively created the “Oriental” as a category of knowledge. He would “Orientalism” or learn the practice of “Oriental” Defined as “the enterprise that handles the East – by making a statement, authorizing to observe it, describing it, addressing it by teaching and solving it.” Domination of it: In short, Orientalism, as Westernism, reorganizes, and has authority over the East. “Syed believes that the concepts of Orientalism and “Oriental” are the basis for creating Western subjects and identities. They are juxtaposed with other people in the East and are considered to have advantages in intelligence, lifestyle, and social organization, and therefore have the right to obtain domination and resources. This work emphasizes the power structure that shapes and replicates knowledge and is still widely taught and applied to understand the relationship between East and West and North and South in the world today. Other influential scholars in the history of knowledge sociology include Marcel Mauss, Max Scheler, Alfred Schütz, Edmund Husserl, Robert K. Merton, Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann (realistic social construction).

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