Gitlow诉纽约案(1925年)审查了社会党成员的案件,该党成员出版了一本宣传政府推翻的小册子,随后被纽约州定罪。最高法院裁定,在这种情况下压制Gitlow的言论是宪法的,因为国家有权保护其公民免受暴力侵害。 (这个立场后来在20世纪30年代被逆转了。)然而,更广泛地说,Gitlow的裁决扩大了美国宪法第一修正案保护的范围。在该决定中,法院确定第一修正案保护措施适用于州政府和联邦政府。该决定使用了第十四修正案的正当程序条款来确立“公司注册原则”,这有助于推动未来几十年的民权诉讼。 1919年,本杰明吉特洛是社会党左翼部分的成员。他管理了一份文件,其总部翻了一番,作为其政党成员的组织空间。 Gitlow利用他在报纸上的位置来订购和分发一本名为“左翼宣言”的小册子。这本小册子呼吁通过有组织的政治罢工和任何其他手段反抗政府来崛起社会主义。在分发小册子后,Gitlow被纽约最高法院根据纽约刑事无政府状态法起诉并定罪。 1902年通过的“刑事无政府状态法”禁止任何人传播美国政府应该通过武力或任何其他非法手段推翻的观点。 Gitlow的律师向最高级别的案件提起上诉:美国最高法院。法院的任务是决定纽约的“刑事无政府状态法”是否违反了美国宪法第一修正案。根据第一修正案,如果该言论要求推翻政府,国家是否可以禁止个人发言?


Gitlow v. The New York case (1925) reviewed the case of members of the Socialist Party, which published a pamphlet propagating the government’s overthrow and was later convicted by the State of New York. The Supreme Court ruled that the suppression of Gitlow’s remarks in this case is constitutional because the state has the right to protect its citizens from violence. (This position was later reversed in the 1930s.) However, more broadly, Gitlow’s ruling expanded the scope of the First Amendment protection of the US Constitution. In this decision, the court determined that the First Amendment protection measures apply to the state and federal governments. The decision used the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to establish the “Corporate Registration Principles”, which will help promote civil rights litigation in the coming decades. In 1919, Benjamin Gitlow was a member of the left-wing part of the Socialist Party. He managed a document and doubled his headquarters as an organizational space for members of his party. Gitlow used his position in the newspaper to order and distribute a booklet called the “Left Declaration.” This booklet calls for the rise of socialism through organized political strikes and any other means of rebelling against the government. After distributing the booklet, Gitlow was prosecuted and convicted by the New York Supreme Court under the New York Criminal Anarchy Act. The Criminal Anarchy Act passed in 1902 prohibits anyone from spreading the view that the US government should overthrow it by force or any other illegal means. Gitlow’s lawyers appealed to the highest-level case: the US Supreme Court. The court’s task is to determine whether the “criminal anarchy law” in New York violates the First Amendment to the US Constitution. According to the First Amendment, if the statement requires the overthrow of the government, can the state prohibit individuals from speaking?


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