“人类的牙齿是直立的,不像猿类那样向外倾斜,它们的高度大致均匀。这些特征……非常有助于发出诸如f或v之类的声音。人类的嘴唇比找到的更复杂的肌肉束带。在其他灵长类动物中,它们产生的灵活性肯定有助于发出像p,b和m这样的声音。事实上,b和m声音在人类婴儿第一年发出的声音中得到最广泛的证明,无论他们使用哪种语言父母正在使用。“ (George Yule,The Study of Language,5th ed.Cambridge University Press,2014)“在与其他类人猿分裂后人类声带的演变中,成人喉部下降到较低位置。语音学家Philip Lieberman有说服力地认为人类降低喉部的最终原因是其产生不同元音的功能。这是一种自然选择的更有效沟通的例子。“婴儿出生时喉部处于高位,如猴子。这是有用的,因为窒息的风险降低,婴儿还没有说话。大约在第一年结束时,人类喉部下降到接近成人的降低位置。这是个体发育重现系统发育的案例,个体的成长反映了物种的进化。“(James R. Hurford,The Origins of Language。牛津大学出版社,2014)”语言准备好的现代儿童在他们面前贪婪地学习词汇开始使语法话语长几个字。因此,我们假设在语言的起源中,一个单词阶段先于我们的远程祖先进入语法的第一步。 “原始语言”一词被广泛用于描述这个单词阶段,其中有词汇但没有语法。“(James R. Hurford,The Origins of Language。牛津大学出版社,2014)”关于语言如何起源的猜测和进化在思想史上占有重要地位,它与聋人签名语言的性质和一般人类手势行为的问题密切相关。可以说,从系统发育的角度来看,人类手语的起源与人类语言的起源是一致的;手语,也就是说,可能是第一批真正的语言。这不是一个新观点 – 它可能与人类语言可能已经开始的非宗教性猜测一样古老。“(David F. Armstrong和Sherman E. Wilcox,The Gestural Origin of Language.Oxford University Press,2007)” [A]对可见手势的物理结构的分析提供了对语法起源的见解,也许是学生语言起源和演变面临的最困难的问题。 。 ..语法的起源将命名转化为语言,使人类能够对事物和事件之间的关系进行评论和思考,也就是说,使他们能够表达复杂的思想,最重要的是,与他人分享。 “我们并不是第一个提出语言手势来源的人。[戈登] Hewes(1973; 1974; 1976)是手势起源理论的第一批现代支持者之一。[Adam] Kendon(1991:215)也暗示“第一种可以说是以语言方式运作的行为本来就必须是手势。”对于Kendon而言,与大多数考虑手势语言起源的人一样,手势与言语和发声相对立。

新加坡管理大学Essay代写:原始语言

“Human teeth are erect, not tilted outward like scorpions, and their height is roughly uniform. These features… are very helpful in making sounds such as f or v. Human lips are better than finding More complex muscle bands. In other primates, the flexibility they produce will certainly help to make sounds like p, b, and m. In fact, b and m sounds are issued in the first year of human babies. The voice is the most widely proven, no matter which language they use in their parents.” (George Yule, The Study of Language, 5th ed. Cambridge University Press, 2014) “In the evolution of human vocal cords after splitting with other apes The adult’s throat has dropped to a lower position. The phonologist Philip Lieberman convincingly believes that the ultimate cause of humans’ lowering of the throat is its ability to produce different vowels. This is an example of more effective communication of natural selection.” When the baby is born, the throat is at a high position, such as a monkey. This is useful because the risk of suffocation is reduced and the baby has not spoken. At the end of the first year, the human throat descended to a lowered position close to the adult. This is a case of phylogenetic re-emergence. The growth of an individual reflects the evolution of the species. “(James R. Hurford, The Origins of Language. Oxford University Press, 2014)” Modern children who are prepared for language greedily learn vocabulary in front of them and begin to make grammatical words a few words long. Therefore, we assume that in the origin of language, a word phase precedes our remote ancestor into the first step of grammar. The term “original language” is used extensively to describe the stage of the word, with vocabulary but no grammar. “(James R. Hurford, The Origins of Language. Oxford University Press, 2014)” The speculation and evolution of how languages ​​originate plays an important role in the history of thought, with the nature of the deaf signature language and the general human gesture behavior. closely related. It can be said that from the perspective of phylogeny, the origin of human sign language is consistent with the origin of human language; sign language, that is, may be the first real language. This is not a new idea – it may be as old as the non-religious speculation that human language may have begun. “(David F. Armstrong and Sherman E. Wilcox, The Gestural Origin of Language. Oxford University Press, 2007)” [A] Analysis of the physical structure of visible gestures provides insight into the origin of grammar, perhaps the origin of the student’s language and The most difficult problem facing evolution. . The origin of grammar translates naming into language, enabling humans to comment and think about the relationship between things and events, that is, to enable them to express complex ideas and, most importantly, to share them with others. “We are not the first to propose a source of language gestures. [Gordon] Hewes (1973; 1974; 1976) is one of the first modern supporters of the theory of the origin of gestures. [Adam] Kendon (1991: 215) also It implies that “the first kind of behavior that can be said to be linguistically operated must have been a gesture. For Kendon, like most people who think about the origin of gesture language, gestures are opposite to words and vocalizations.

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