康德成熟的形而上学和认识论最重要的元素是他的超验唯心主义学说,它在“纯粹理性批判”(1781/87)中得到了最充分的讨论。先验理想主义是我们所经历的经验世界(“出现”的“现象”世界)与自身的世界区别开来的论点。这种区分最重要的方面是,虽然经验世界存在于空间和时间中,但事物本身既不是空间的,也不是时间的。先验理想主义具有广泛的后果。从积极的方面来说,康德采取超验的理想主义来引出一种“经验现实主义”,根据这种理论,人类可以直接认知地进入自然的物理世界,甚至可以对所有可能的经验对象的基本特征进行先验认知。从消极方面来说,康德认为我们自己无法了解事物。此外,由于传统的形而上学本身处理事物,传统形而上学问题的答案(例如,关于上帝或自由意志)永远不会被人类思想所回答。本节论述了康德形而上学和认识论的发展,然后总结了康德理论最重要的论点和结论。

新加坡吉隆坡哲学Essay代写:形而上学与认识论

The most important element of Kant’s mature metaphysics and epistemology is his doctrine of transcendental idealism, which received its fullest discussion in Critique of Pure Reason (1781/87). Transcendental idealism is the thesis that the empirical world that we experience (the “phenomenal” world of “appearances”) is to be distinguished from the world of things as they are in themselves. The most significant aspect of this distinction is that while the empirical world exists in space and time, things in themselves are neither spatial nor temporal. Transcendental idealism has wide-ranging consequences. On the positive side, Kant takes transcendental idealism to entail an “empirical realism,” according to which humans have direct epistemic access to the natural, physical world and can even have a priori cognition of basic features of all possible experienceable objects. On the negative side, Kant argues that we cannot have knowledge of things in themselves. Further, since traditional metaphysics deals with things in themselves, answers to the questions of traditional metaphysics (for example, regarding God or free will) can never be answered by human minds. This section addresses the development of Kant’s metaphysics and epistemology and then summarizes the most important arguments and conclusions of Kant’s theory.

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