考虑对某种商品的需求 – 例如阿司匹林。一家制造商的阿司匹林产品的需求会发生什么变化呢?那家制造商 – 我们称之为制造商X–会提高价格吗?记住这个问题,考虑一个不同的情况:对世界上最昂贵的新汽车Koenigsegg CCXR Trevita的需求。其报告的零售价为480万美元。如果制造商将价格提高到520万美元或降低到440万美元,您认为可能会发生什么?现在,让我们回到目前售价480万美元的Koenigsegg CCXR,并考虑如果价格上涨或下跌几十万可能会发生什么。如果你认为这可能不会改变对汽车的需求,那么你又是对的。为什么?嗯,首先,市场上数百万美元汽车的任何人都不是价格购物者。有足够金钱考虑购买的人不太可能担心价格问题。他们主要关注汽车,这是独一无二的。因此,需求可能不会因价格变化太大的第二个原因是,实际上,如果您想要特定的驾驶体验,那就别无选择。现在,回到零售价上涨后对制造商X的阿司匹林产品的需求问题。如果您猜测对X的阿司匹林的需求可能会大幅下降,那么您是对的。这是有道理的,因为,首先,每个制造商的阿司匹林产品基本上与另一个产品相同 – 在选择一个制造商的产品而不是另一个制造商的产品方面没有任何健康优势。其次,该产品可以从许多其他制造商那里获得 – 消费者总是有多种可供选择。因此,当消费者选择阿司匹林产品时,将制造商X的产品与其他产品区别开来的少数几件事之一就是它的成本更高。那么为什么消费者会选择X?好吧,有些人可能会继续购买阿司匹林X的习惯或品牌忠诚度,但很多人可能不会。您如何以更正式的经济术语陈述这两种情况?阿司匹林的需求价格弹性很高,这意味着价格的微小变化会带来更大的需求后果。 Koenigsegg CCXR Trevita的需求弹性较低,这意味着价格的变化不会大大改变买家的需求。另一种更普遍地表达同一事物的方式是,当产品需求的百分比变化小于产品价格的百分比变化时,需求被认为是无弹性的。当需求增加或减少的百分比大于价格增长百分比时,需求被称为弹性。需求价格弹性的公式,在本系列的第一篇文章中有更详细的解释,是需求的价格弹性(PEoD)=(需求数量变化百分比/(价格变化百分比)

英国阿斯顿大学经济学Essay代写:供给价格弹性

Consider the demand for a certain good — aspirin, for example. What happens to the demand for one manufacturer’s aspirin product when that manufacturer — which we’ll call manufacturer X — raises the price? Keeping that question in mind, consider a different situation: the demand for the world’s most expensive new automobile, the Koenigsegg CCXR Trevita. Its reported retail price is $4.8 million. What do you think might happen if the manufacturer raised the price to $5.2M or lowered it to $4.4M? Now, let’s return to the Koenigsegg CCXR, which currently costs $4.8M, and think about what might happen if the price went up or down a few hundred thousand. If you thought it might not change the demand for the car by that much, you’re right again. Why? Well, first of all, anyone in the market for a multi-million dollar automobile is not a price shopper. Someone who has money enough to consider the purchase is unlikely to be concerned about price. They’re concerned primarily about the car, which is unique. So the second reason why the demand might not change much with price is that, really, if you want that particular driving experience, there’s no alternative. Now, return to the question of the demand for manufacturer X’s aspirin product following an increase in the retail price. If you guessed that the demand for X’s aspirin might decline substantially, you’d be right. It makes sense, because, first, every manufacturer’s aspirin product is essentially the same as another’s — there’s no health advantage whatsoever in selecting one manufacturer’s product over another. Second, the product is widely available from a number of other manufacturer’s — the consumer always has a number available choices. So, when a consumer selects an aspirin product, one of the few things that distinguish manufacturer X’s product from others is that it costs a little more. So why would the consumer choose X? Well, some might continue to buy aspirin X out of habit or brand loyalty, but many very probably would not. How would you state these two situations in more formal economic terms? Aspirin has a high price elasticity of demand, meaning that small changes in price have greater demand consequences. The Koenigsegg CCXR Trevita has a low elasticity of demand, meaning that changing the price doesn’t greatly change buyer demand. Another way of stating the same thing a little more generally is that when the demand for the product has a percentage change that’s less than the percentage change in the product’s price, the demand is said to be inelastic. When the percentage increase or decrease in demand is greater than the percentage increase in price, the demand is said to be elastic. The formula for price elasticity of demand, which is explained in a little more detail in the first article in this series, is Price Elasticity of Demand (PEoD) = (% Change in Quantity Demanded/ (% Change in Price)

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