Middens可以在家庭层面创建,在社区或社区内共享,甚至可以与特定事件相关联,例如盛宴。 Middens有不同的形状和大小。尺寸反映了使用特定midden的时间长度,以及存储在其中的材料的百分比是有机物还是衰变物,而非有机物质则不然。在历史悠久的农庄中,沉积物存在于称为“片状物”的薄层中,这是农民为鸡或其他农场动物扔掉残渣的结果。但它们也可能是巨大的。现代的middens被称为“垃圾填埋场”,在今天的许多地方,有一群清道夫将垃圾填埋场用于回收可再生商品(参见Martinez 2010)。考古学家喜欢middens,因为它们包含来自各种文化行为的残骸。 Middens持有食物残留物 – 包括花粉和植物石,以及食物本身 – 以及含有它们的陶器或平底锅。它们包括疲惫的石头和金属工具;有机物质,包括适用于放射性碳测年的木炭;有时埋葬和仪式行为的证据。民族考古学家Ian McNiven(2013)发现Torres Islanders在节日之外有明显独立的midden区域,并用它们作为参考点来讲述他们回忆起的过去派对的故事。在某些情况下,midden环境可以很好地保存有机材料,如木材,篮筐和植物食品。 midden可以让考古学家重建过去的人类行为,特别是相对地位和财富以及生存行为等。一个人扔掉的东西反映了他们吃什么和不吃什么。路易莎·达格斯及其同事(2018年)只是众多研究人员中的最新成员,他们使用middens来识别和研究气候变化的影响。


Middens can be created at the household level, shared within a community or community, and even associated with specific events, such as feasts. Middens come in different shapes and sizes. The size reflects the length of time that a particular midden is used, and whether the percentage of material stored in it is organic or decay, but not organic matter. In historic farms, sediments are found in thin layers called “sheets”, which are the result of farmers throwing away debris for chickens or other farm animals. But they can also be huge. Modern middens are known as “landfills” and in many places today a group of scavengers use landfills to recycle renewable commodities (see Martinez 2010). Archaeologists like middens because they contain wreckage from a variety of cultural behaviors. Middens holds food residues – including pollen and plant stones, as well as the food itself – as well as pottery or pans containing them. They include tired stones and metal tools; organic materials, including charcoal for radiocarbon dating; and sometimes evidence of burial and ritual behavior. Ethnic archaeologist Ian McNiven (2013) found that Torres Islanders had distinctly independent midden areas outside the festival and used them as reference points to tell the stories of past parties they recalled. In some cases, the midden environment preserves organic materials such as wood, baskets and plant foods. Midden allows archaeologists to reconstruct past human behavior, especially relative status and wealth, and survival behavior. What someone throws away reflects what they eat and what they don’t. Louisa Dagus and colleagues (2018) are just the latest members of many researchers who use middens to identify and study the effects of climate change.


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