伊万彼得罗维奇巴甫洛夫(1849年9月14日 – 1936年2月27日)是一位诺贝尔奖获得者,以其对狗的实验而闻名。在他的研究中,他发现了条件反射,它塑造了心理学中的行为主义领域。帕夫洛夫于1849年9月14日出生在俄罗斯梁赞的小村庄。他的父亲彼得·德米特里耶维奇·巴甫洛夫(Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov)是一名牧师,希望他的儿子能够跟随他的脚步并加入教堂。我离开了神学院,开始在圣彼得堡大学学习化学和生理学。 1875年,他在帝国医学院获得了博士学位,然后在两位着名的生理学家Rudolf Heidenhain和Carl Ludwig的带领下学习。在伊万的早年,似乎他父亲的梦想将成为现实。伊万在一所教会学校和一所神学院接受教育。但当他读到查尔斯·达尔文和I. M. Sechenov等科学家的作品时,伊万决定转而进行科学研究。巴甫洛夫的命运在1890年改变,当时他被任命为军事医学院的药理学教授。 Ivan Pavlov于1881年与Seraphima Vasilievna Karchevskaya结婚。他们共同生了五个孩子:Wirchik,Vladimir,Victor,Vsevolod和Vera。在他们的早年,巴甫洛夫和他的妻子生活在贫困中。在困难时期,他们和朋友住在一起,并且曾经租过一个虫子出没的阁楼空间。同年,他成为实验医学研究所生理学系主任。凭借这些资金充足的学术职位,巴甫洛夫有机会进一步追求他感兴趣的科学研究。巴甫洛夫的早期研究主要集中在消化生理学上。他用手术方法研究消化系统的各种过程。通过在手术过程中暴露狗的肠道部分,他能够了解胃分泌物以及身体和心灵在消化过程中的作用。巴甫洛夫有时使用活体动物,这是当时可接受的做法,但由于现代道德标准,今天不会发生。在1897年,巴甫洛夫发表了他在一个名为“讲座上消化腺的工作。”他对消化生理的工作簿的调查结果也与诺贝尔奖认可生理学于1904年一些巴甫洛夫的其他荣誉包括名誉博士学位1912年获得的剑桥大学和1915年获得的荣誉军团勋章。虽然巴甫洛夫有许多值得注意的成就,但他最有名的是定义条件反射的概念。他证明了狗在吃饱时会有无条件的反应 – 换句话说,他们很难在吃东西时垂涎三尺。条件反射被认为是可以通过暴露于刺激而发生的学习形式。巴甫洛夫通过一系列与狗的实验在实验室中研究了这种现象。最初,巴甫洛夫正在研究流涎和喂养之间的联系。巴甫洛夫在实验室中使用各种神经刺激测试了他的理论。例如,他使用电击,产生特定音调的蜂鸣器和节拍器的滴答声使狗将某些噪音和刺激与食物联系起来。然而,当巴甫洛夫注意到只是看到一个穿着实验室外套的人足以让狗垂涎欲滴时,他意识到他不小心做了一个额外的科学发现。这些狗已经知道实验室外套意味着食物,并且作为回应,他们每次看到实验室助理时都会垂涎三尺。换句话说,狗已经习惯于以某种方式作出反应。从这时起,巴甫洛夫决定全身心投入调理研究。虽然他不是心理学家,巴甫洛夫怀疑他的发现也适用于人类。他认为条件反应可能会导致心理问题患者的某些行为,并且这些反应可能是没有学问的。其他科学家,如John B. Watson,当他们能够复制巴甫洛夫与人类的研究时证明了这一理论是正确的。他发现,他不仅可以引起条件反应(流涎),如果他发出同样的声音但是没有给狗狗食物,他也可以打破这种联系

英国兰卡斯特大学文学Essay代写:古典调节之父

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (September 14, 1849 — February 27, 1936) was a Nobel Prize winning physiologist best known for his experiments with dogs. In his research, he discovered the conditioned reflex, which shaped the field of behaviorism in psychology.Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 in the small village of Ryazan, Russia. His father, Peter Dmitrievich Pavlov, was a priest who hoped that his son would follow in his footsteps and join the church. IHe left the seminary and began studying chemistry and physiology at the University of St. Petersburg. In 1875, he earned an M.D. from the Imperial Medical Academy before going on to study under Rudolf Heidenhain and Carl Ludwig, two renowned physiologists. n Ivan’s early years, it seemed that his father’s dream would become a reality. Ivan was educated at a church school and a theological seminary. But when he read the works of scientists like Charles Darwin and I. M. Sechenov, Ivan decided to pursue scientific studies instead. Pavlov’s fortunes changed in 1890, when he took an appointment as the Professor of Pharmacology at the Military Medical Academy. Ivan Pavlov married Seraphima Vasilievna Karchevskaya in 1881. Together, they had five children: Wirchik, Vladimir, Victor, Vsevolod, and Vera. In their early years, Pavlov and his wife lived in poverty. During the hard times, they stayed with friends, and at one point, rented a bug-infested attic space. That same year, he became the director of the Department of Physiology at the Institute of Experimental Medicine. With these well-funded academic positions, Pavlov had the opportunity to further pursue the scientific studies that interested him. Pavlov’s early research focused primarily on the physiology of digestion. He used surgical methods to study various processes of the digestive system. By exposing portions of a dog’s intestinal canal during surgery, he was able to gain an understanding of gastric secretions and the role of the body and mind in the digestive process. Pavlov sometimes operated on live animals, which was an acceptable practice back then but would not occur today due to modern ethical standards. In 1897, Pavlov published his findings in a book called “Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands.” His work on the physiology of digestion was also recognized with a Nobel Prize for Physiology in 1904. Some of Pavlov’s other honors include an honorary doctorate from Cambridge University, which was awarded in 1912, and the Order of the Legion of Honour, which was given to him in 1915. Although Pavlov has many notable accomplishments, he is most well known for defining the concept of conditioned reflexes. He proved that dogs have an unconditioned response when they are fed—in other words, they are hard-wired to salivate at the prospect of eating. A conditioned reflex is considered a form of learning that can occur through the exposure to stimuli. Pavlov studied this phenomenon in the lab through a series of experiments with dogs. Initially, Pavlov was studying the connection between salivation and feeding. Pavlov tested his theories in the lab using a variety of neural stimuli. For example, he used electric shocks, a buzzer that produced specific tones and the ticking of a metronome to make the dogs associate certain noises and stimuli with food. However, when Pavlov noticed that the mere sight of a person in a lab coat was enough to cause the dogs to salivate, he realized that he had accidentally made an additional scientific discovery. The dogs had learned that a lab coat meant food, and in response, they salivated every time they saw a lab assistant. In other words, the dogs had been conditioned to respond a certain way. From this point on, Pavlov decided to devote himself to the study of conditioning. Even though he was not a psychologist, Pavlov suspected that his findings could be applied to humans as well. He believed that a conditioned response may be causing certain behaviors in people with psychological problems, and that these responses could be unlearned. Other scientists, such as John B. Watson, proved this theory correct when they were able to replicate Pavlov’s research with humans. He found that not only could he cause a conditioned response (salivation), he could also break the association if he made these same noises but did not give the dogs food.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注