几个世纪以来，艺术家一直使用摄影。在17世纪，老大师可能已经尝试过光学设备。在19世纪，摄影的发展影响了印象派运动。随着摄影变得越来越复杂，艺术家探索了现代技术可以帮助创作超逼真绘画的方式。照片写实运动是在20世纪60年代后期发展起来的。艺术家试图制作拍摄图像的精确副本。一些艺术家将照片投射到他们的画布上，并使用喷枪来复制细节。像Robert Bechtle，Charles Bell和John Salt这样的早期照片写实主义者描绘了汽车，卡车，广告牌和家居用品的摄影图像。在许多方面，这些作品类似于安迪·沃霍尔（Andy Warhol）等画家的波普艺术，他着名地复制了坎贝尔汤罐的超大版本。然而，波普艺术具有明显的人工二维外观，而真实感使观众气喘吁吁，“我不敢相信这是一幅画！”当代艺术家使用逼真的技术来探索无限的主题。 Bryan Drury描绘了令人惊叹的逼真肖像。杰森·德·格拉夫（Jason de Graaf）描绘了像冰淇淋甜筒融化的不寻常的静物。 Gregory Thielker以高分辨率细节捕捉风景和环境。照片写实主义者Audrey Flack（如上所示）超越了文字表示的局限。她的画作“玛丽莲”是玛丽莲梦露生死攸关的超大尺寸影像。意想不到的无关物体并置 – 梨，蜡烛，口红管 – 创造了一种叙事。弗拉克描述了她作为照片写实主义者的工作，但由于她扭曲了规模并引入了更深层的含义，她也可能被归类为超现实主义者。 20世纪60年代和70年代的照片写实主义者通常不会改变场景或插入隐藏的意义，但随着技术的发展，从摄影中汲取灵感的艺术家也是如此。超现实主义是超驱动的照片写实主义。颜色清晰，细节更精确，主题更具争议性。超现实主义 – 也称为超现实主义，超现实主义或超现实主义 – 采用了许多错觉技巧。然而，与trompe l’Oeil不同，目标不是愚弄眼睛。相反，超现实主义艺术将注意力转移到自己的技巧上。特征被夸大，尺度被改变，物体被放置在惊人的，不自然的环境中。在绘画和雕塑中，超现实主义渴望做的不仅仅是用艺术家的技术技巧给观众留下深刻印象。通过挑战我们对现实的看法，超现实主义者对社会问题，政治问题或哲学思想进行评论。例如，超现实主义雕塑家罗恩·穆克（Ron Mueck，1958-）庆祝人体和生与死的悲..他使用树脂，玻璃纤维，硅树脂和其他材料来构建具有柔软，寒冷的生命状皮肤的人物。纹理，皱纹，麻点和残茬，身体是令人不安的可信。然而，与此同时，Mueck的雕塑令人难以置信。栩栩如生的人物从来没有真人大小。有些是巨大的，有些是微缩模型。观众经常发现效果令人迷惑，震惊和挑衅。
Artists have been using photography for centuries. In the 17th century, the old master may have tried optical equipment. In the 19th century, the development of photography influenced the Impressionist movement. As photography becomes more complex, artists explore the ways in which modern technology can help create ultra-realistic paintings. Photorealism was developed in the late 1960s. The artist tried to make an exact copy of the captured image. Some artists project photos onto their canvas and use a spray gun to replicate the details. Early photorealists like Robert Bechtle, Charles Bell and John Salt painted photographic images of cars, trucks, billboards and household items. In many ways, these works are similar to pop art by painters such as Andy Warhol, who famously replicated the oversized version of Campbell’s soup cans. However, Pop Art has an obvious artificial two-dimensional appearance, and the realism makes the audience panting. “I can’t believe this is a painting!” Contemporary artists use realistic techniques to explore infinite themes. Bryan Drury paints a stunningly lifelike portrait. Jason de Graaf paints an unusual still life like an ice cream cone. Gregory Thielker captures landscapes and environments with high-resolution detail. Photorealist Audrey Flack (shown above) goes beyond the limitations of textual representation. Her painting “Mary Lian” is an oversized image of Marilyn Monroe’s life and death. Unexpected unrelated objects juxtaposed – pears, candles, lipstick tubes – created a narrative. Frak described her work as a photorealist, but she may also be classified as a surrealist because she distorted her scale and introduced deeper meaning. Photorealists in the 1960s and 1970s usually did not change the scene or insert hidden meanings, but as technology developed, so did artists who drew inspiration from photography. Surrealism is super-driven photorealism. The color is clear, the details are more precise, and the theme is more controversial. Surrealism – also known as Surrealism, Surrealism or Surrealism – uses many illusion techniques. However, unlike trompe l’Oeil, the goal is not to fool your eyes. Instead, surreal art shifts its attention to its own skills. Features are exaggerated, scales are changed, and objects are placed in an amazing, unnatural environment. In painting and sculpture, surrealism is eager to do more than to impress the audience with the artist’s technical skills. By challenging our perception of reality, surrealists comment on social issues, political issues or philosophical thinking. For example, the surrealist sculptor Ron Mueck (1958-) celebrates the human body and the sorrow of life and death. He uses resin, fiberglass, silicone and other materials to build a soft, cold life. The character of the skin. Textures, wrinkles, pockmarks and wreckage, the body is disturbing and credible. At the same time, however, Mueck’s sculpture is incredible. Lifelike characters are never real people. Some are huge and some are miniature models. The audience often finds the effect confusing, shocking and provocative.