1987年诺贝尔物理学奖授予了德国物理学家J. Georg Bednorz和瑞士物理学家K. Alexander Muller，他们发现某些类别的陶瓷可以设计成实际上没有电阻，这意味着陶瓷材料可以用作超导体。这些陶瓷的关键方面是它们代表了第一类“高温超导体”，它们的发现对可用于复杂电子设备的材料类型产生了突破性影响，或者用诺贝尔官方公告宣布的话说两位研究人员获得该奖项“因其在陶瓷材料中发现超导性的重大突破”。这些物理学家并不是第一个发现超导性的人，这种超导性在1911年由Kamerlingh Onnes在研究汞时发现。基本上，由于汞的温度降低，有一点似乎它失去了所有的电阻，这意味着电流计数不受阻碍地流过它，产生一个超电流。这就是超导体的意义。然而，汞仅在绝对零度附近以非常低的程度表现出超导特性，大约4开氏度。 20世纪70年代的后期研究确实发现了在13开氏度左右表现出超导特性的材料。 Bednorz和Muller于1986年在瑞士苏黎世附近的一家IBM研究实验室合作研究陶瓷的导电性能，当时他们在大约35开氏度的温度下发现了这些陶瓷的超导特性。 Bednorz和Muller使用的材料是掺杂钡的镧和氧化铜的化合物。这些“高温超导体”很快被其他研究人员证实，并于次年获得诺贝尔物理学奖。所有的高温超导体都被称为II型超导体，其效果之一是当它们施加强磁场时，它们只会表现出部分迈斯纳效应，在高磁场中会破坏，因为在一定强度的磁场中，材料的超导性被材料内形成的电涡流破坏。 Johannes Georg Bednorz于1950年5月16日出生于德意志联邦共和国北莱茵威斯特法伦州的Neuenkirchen（我们在美国称为西德）。他的家人在第二次世界大战期间一直流离失所和分裂，但他们在1949年重新团聚，他是这个家庭的后期补充。他于1968年就读于明斯特大学，最初学习化学，然后转入矿物学领域，特别是晶体学，他更喜欢化学和物理学的结合。他于1972年夏天在IBM苏黎世研究实验室工作，当时他第一次开始与物理系主任穆勒博士一起工作。他开始攻读博士学位。 1977年，他在苏黎世的瑞士联邦理工学院与监督员Heini Granicher教授和Alex Muller教授合作。他在1982年正式加入IBM的员工，这是他暑假在那里作为学生在那里度过的十年。他于1983年开始与Muller博士一起寻找高温超导体，并于1986年成功确定了他们的目标.Karl Alexander Muller于1927年4月20日出生于瑞士巴塞尔。他在瑞士的Schiers度过了第二次世界大战，在福音派学院学习，七年后完成了学士学位，从11岁开始他的母亲去世。他随后在瑞士军队接受军事训练，然后过渡到苏黎世的瑞士联邦理工学院。他的教授中有着名物理学家沃尔夫冈·泡利。他于1958年毕业，当时在日内瓦的巴特尔纪念研究所工作，然后在苏黎世大学担任讲师，最后于1963年在IBM苏黎世研究实验室找到了一份工作。他在那里进行了一系列研究，包括担任作为Bednorz博士的导师，他们就发现高温超导体的研究进行了合作，从而获得了诺贝尔物理学奖。
The 1987 Nobel Prize in Physics went to German physicist J. Georg Bednorz and Swiss physicist K. Alexander Muller for discovery that certain classes of ceramics could be designed that had effectively no electrical resistance, meaning that there were ceramic materials that could be used as superconductors. The key aspect of these ceramics is that they represented the first class of “high-temperature superconductors” and their discovery had groundbreaking effects on the types of materials that could be used within sophisticated electronic devices Or, in the words of the official Nobel Prize announcement, the two researchers received the award “for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials.” These physicists were not the first to discover superconductivity, which had been identified in 1911 by Kamerlingh Onnes while researching mercury. Essentially, as mercury was reduced in temperature, there was a point at which it seemed to lose all electrical resistance, meaning that electrical current count flow through it unimpeded, creating a supercurrent. This is what it means to be a superconductor. However, the mercury only exhibited the superconducting properties at very low degrees near absolute zero, around 4 degrees Kelvin. Later research in the 1970s did identify materials that exhibited superconducting properties at around 13 degrees Kelvin. Bednorz and Muller were working together to research the conductive properties of ceramics at an IBM research laboratory near Zurich, Switzerland, in 1986, when they discovered the superconducting properties in these ceramics at temperatures of approximately 35 degrees Kelvin. The material used by Bednorz and Muller was a compound of lanthanum and copper oxide that was doped with barium. These “high-temperature superconductors” were confirmed very quickly by other researchers, and they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics the following year. All of the high-temperature superconductors are known as a Type II superconductor, and one of the effects of this is that when they have a strong magnetic field applied, they will exhibit only a partial Meissner effect that breaks down in a high magnetic field, because at a certain intensity of magnetic field the superconductivity of the material is destroyed by electrical vortices that form within the material. Johannes Georg Bednorz was born on May 16, 1950, in Neuenkirchen, in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Federal Republic of Germany (known to those of us in America as West Germany). His family had been displaced and split up during World War II, but they had reunited in 1949 and he was a late addition to the family. He attended the University of Munster in 1968, initially studying chemistry and then transitioning into the field of mineralogy, specifically crystallography, finding the mix of chemistry and physics more to his liking. He worked at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory during the summer of 1972, which is when he first began working with Dr. Muller, head of the physics department. He began work on his Ph.D. in 1977 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, in Zurich, with supervisors Prof. Heini Granicher and Alex Muller. He officially joined the staff of IBM in 1982, a decade after he spent the summer working there as a student. He began working on the search for a high-temperature superconductor with Dr. Muller in 1983, and they successfully identified their goal in 1986. Karl Alexander Muller was born April 20, 1927, in Basel, Switzerland. He spent World War II in Schiers, Switzerland, attending the Evangelical College, completing his baccalaureate degree in seven years, starting at age 11 when his mother died. He followed this up with military training in the Swiss army and then transitioned to Zurich’s Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Among his professors was renowned physicist Wolfgang Pauli. He graduated in 1958, working then at the Battelle Memorial Institute in Geneva, then a Lecturer at the University of Zurich, and then finally landing a job at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory in 1963. He conducted a range of research there, including serving as a mentor to Dr. Bednorz and collaborating together on the research to discover high-temperature superconductors, which resulted in the awarding of this Nobel Prize in Physics.