强迫与成瘾不同。前者是做某事的压倒性欲望(或身体需要感),而成瘾是对物质或行为的物理或化学依赖。患有高级成瘾症的人会继续上瘾行为,即使他们明白这样做对自己和他人有害。酒精中毒,吸毒,吸烟和赌博也许是成瘾的最常见例子。强迫和成瘾之间的两个关键区别是快乐和意识。快乐:强迫行为,例如那些涉及强迫症的行为,很少会产生愉悦感,而成瘾通常会产生。例如,强迫洗手的人不会因此而感到高兴。相比之下,有瘾的人“想”使用这种物质或参与行为,因为他们希望享受它。这种对愉悦或缓解的渴望成为成瘾的自我延续周期的一部分,因为当他们不能使用该物质或从事该行为时,该人会遭受退缩的不适。习惯通常通过称为“习惯化”的自然过程随着时间的推移而发展,在此过程中必须有意识地开始的重复行为最终变成潜意识并且在没有特定思考的情况下习惯性地进行。例如,作为孩子,我们可能需要提醒我们刷牙,我们最终会成长为习惯。良好的习惯,如刷牙,是有意识地和有意添加到我们的日常生活中的行为,以维持或改善我们的健康或一般健康。意识:患有强迫症的人通常会意识到他们的行为,并且被他们没有合理理由的知识所困扰。另一方面,有瘾的人往往不知道或不关心他们行为的负面后果。典型的拒绝成瘾阶段,个人拒绝承认他们的行为是有害的。相反,他们“只是玩得开心”或试图“适应”。通常情况下,它会带来毁灭性的后果,比如酒后驾车的定罪,离婚,或被瘾的人解雇,以了解他们行为的现实。与强迫和不可控制地行动的强迫和成瘾不同,习惯是经常和自动重复的行为。例如,虽然我们可能意识到我们正在刷牙,但我们几乎不知道为什么我们这样做或者问自己,“我应该刷牙还是不刷牙?”虽然有良好的习惯和不良的,不健康的习惯,任何习惯都可能成为强迫甚至成瘾。换句话说,你真的可以拥有“太多好事。”例如,经常锻炼的好习惯可能会成为一种不健康的强迫或成瘾。当他们导致化学依赖时,常见的习惯往往会发展为成瘾,如酗酒和吸烟的情况。例如,当喝酒的欲望变成身体或情感上的饮酒需求时,喝一杯啤酒和晚餐的习惯会成瘾。当然,强迫行为和习惯之间的关键区别在于能否选择这样做。虽然我们可以选择为我们的日常生活添加良好,健康的习惯,但我们也可以选择打破旧的有害习惯。

美国德克萨斯州心理学Assignment代写:强迫行为心理学

A compulsion is different from an addiction. The former is an overwhelming desire (or sense of physical need) to do something, while an addiction is a physical or chemical dependence on a substance or behavior. People with advanced addictions will continue their addictive behavior, even when they understand that doing so is harmful to themselves and others. Alcoholism, drug abuse, smoking, and gambling are perhaps the most common examples of addictions. Two key differences between compulsion and addiction are pleasure and awareness. Pleasure: Compulsive behaviors, such as those involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder, rarely result in feelings of pleasure, whereas addictions typically do. For example, people who compulsively wash their hands get no pleasure from doing so. By contrast, people with addictions “want” to use the substance or engage in the behavior because they expect to enjoy it. This desire for pleasure or relief becomes part of the self-perpetuating cycle of addiction as the person suffers the discomfort of withdrawal that comes when they are unable to use the substance or engage in the behavior. Habits typically develop over time through a natural process called “habituation,” during which repetitive actions that must be consciously initiated eventually become subconscious and are carried out habitually without specific thought. For example, while as children, we may need to be reminded to brush our teeth, we eventually grow to do it as a matter of habit. Good habits, like tooth-brushing, are behaviors that are consciously and intentionally added to our routines in order to maintain or improve our health or general wellbeing. Awareness: People with obsessive-compulsive disorders are typically aware of their behaviors and are bothered by the knowledge that they have no logical reason for doing them. On the other hand, people with addictions are often unaware of or unconcerned about the negative consequences of their actions. Typical of the denial stage of addictions, the individuals refuse to admit that their behavior is harmful. Instead, they are “just having fun” or trying to “fit in.” Often, it takes a devastating consequence like a drunk-driving conviction, a divorce, or getting fired for persons with addictions to become aware of the realities of their actions. Unlike compulsions and addictions, which are acted out consciously and uncontrollably, habits are actions that are repeated regularly and automatically. For example, although we may be aware that we are brushing our teeth, we almost never wonder why we are doing it or ask ourselves, “Should I be brushing my teeth or not?” While there are good habits and bad, unhealthy habits, any habit can become a compulsion or even an addiction. In other words, you really can have “too much of a good thing.” For example, the good habit of exercising regularly can become an unhealthy compulsion or addiction when done to excess. Common habits often develop into addictions when they result in a chemical dependency, as in the cases of alcoholism and smoking. The habit of having a glass of beer with dinner, for example, becomes an addiction when the desire to drink turns into a physical or emotional need to drink. Of course, the key difference between a compulsive behavior and a habit is the ability to choose to do them or not. While we can choose to add good, healthy habits to our routines, we can also choose to break old harmful habits.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注