20世纪中叶,心理分析理论和行为主义理论在心理学领域十分突出。虽然这两种观点有很大不同,但它们都有一个普遍的假设,即人们受到超出其控制范围的力量的驱使。针对这一假设,出现了一种新的观点,即人本主义心理学。人文主义者希望为人类的奋斗提供一个更乐观、更积极的视角。自我实现理论是从人本主义的视角出发的。人文主义心理学家认为,人是由更高的需求驱动的,尤其是实现自我的需要。与那些关注心理问题的精神分析家和行为主义者不同,马斯洛通过研究心理健康的个体发展了他的理论。马斯洛将他的自我实现理论置于需要层次中。这个层次代表了从低到高排列的五个需求:生理需求:这些需求包括使我们保持活力的需求,如食物、水、住所、温暖和睡眠。安全需求:需要安全感、稳定感和无惧感。爱和归属需要:通过与朋友和家人发展关系来归属社会的需要。自尊需要:需要同时感到(a)基于自己的成就和能力的自尊和(b)别人的认可和尊重。自我实现需要:追求和实现自己独特潜能的需要。当马斯洛在1943年最初解释等级制度时,他指出,在满足较低需求之前,一般不会追求更高的需求。然而,他补充说,不需要完全满足某人转移到层次结构中的下一个需求。相反,这些需求必须得到部分满足,这意味着一个人至少可以在某种程度上同时追求所有五个需求。马斯洛包括了一些警告,以解释为什么某些人可能会追求更高的需求而不是更低的需求。例如,一些特别被创造性地表达自己的欲望驱使的人可能追求自我实现,即使他们的较低需求未得到满足。同样地,那些特别致力于追求更高理想的人可能会实现自我实现,尽管逆境阻止他们满足自己较低的需求。对马斯洛来说,自我实现是成为自己最好的版本的能力。马斯洛说:“这种倾向可以被表达为越来越渴望成为自己,成为自己所能成为的一切。”当然,我们都持有不同的价值观、愿望和能力。因此,自我实现在不同的人中会有不同的表现。一个人可以通过艺术表现自我实现,而另一个人则通过成为父母来实现,而另一个人则通过发明新技术来实现。马斯洛认为,由于难以满足这四个较低的需求,很少有人能够成功地自我实现,或者只能在有限的能力内实现。他提出,能够成功自我实现的人具有某些特征。他称这些人为自我实现者。根据马斯洛的说法,自我实现者分享达到巅峰体验,或快乐和超越的时刻的能力。虽然任何人都可以有高峰体验,但自我实现者却更频繁。此外,马斯洛认为自我实现者倾向于高度创造性、自主性、客观性、关注人性、接受自己和他人。马斯洛争辩说,有些人根本没有动力去实现自我。他通过区分缺陷需求,或D-需求,包括他层次中的四个较低需求,和作为需求,或B-需求来阐述这一点。马斯洛说D-需求来自外部来源,而B需求来自于个人内部。据马斯洛说,自我实现者比非自我实现者更有动力追求B需求。

美国加州大学心理学Essay代写: 心理分析

In the mid-20th century, psychoanalysis theory and behaviorism theory were very prominent in the field of psychology. Although these two views are quite different, they all have a general assumption that people are driven by forces beyond their control. In response to this hypothesis, a new view has emerged, that is, humanistic psychology. Humanists hope to provide a more optimistic and positive perspective for human struggle. The theory of self-realization is based on humanism. Humanistic psychologists believe that human beings are driven by higher needs, especially the need to realize themselves. Unlike psychoanalysts and behaviorists who focus on psychological problems, Maslow developed his theory by studying individuals with mental health. Maslow put his theory of self-realization at the level of need. This hierarchy represents five needs, ranging from low to high: physiological needs: those that keep us alive, such as food, water, shelter, warmth and sleep. Safety needs: A sense of security, stability and fearlessness are needed. Love and belonging needs: the need to belong to society by developing relationships with friends and family. Self-esteem needs: Need to feel (a) self-esteem based on one’s own achievements and abilities and (b) recognition and respect from others. Self-fulfillment needs: the need to pursue and realize one’s own unique potential. When Maslow first explained the hierarchy in 1943, he pointed out that higher demand would not normally be pursued until lower demand was met. However, he adds that there is no need to fully meet someone’s next need to move to a hierarchy. On the contrary, these needs must be partially met, which means that a person can pursue all five needs at the same time at least to some extent. Maslow included warnings to explain why some people might pursue higher needs rather than lower ones. For example, some people who are particularly motivated by creative expression of their desires may pursue self-fulfillment even if their lower needs are not met. Similarly, those who are particularly committed to pursuing higher ideals may achieve self-fulfillment, although adversity prevents them from meeting their lower needs. For Maslow, self-actualization is the ability to be the best version of himself. “This tendency can be expressed as a growing desire to be who you are and what you can be,” Maslow said. Of course, we all hold different values, aspirations and abilities. As a result, self-actualization can be manifested differently in different people. One can achieve self-realization through artistic expression, while the other can achieve it by becoming a parent, while the other can achieve it by inventing new technologies. Maslow believes that because of the difficulty in meeting these four lower needs, few people can successfully achieve self-realization, or can only achieve within a limited capacity. He argues that people who can successfully self-actualize have certain characteristics. He calls these people self-actualizers. According to Maslow, self-actualizers share the ability to experience peak times, or to enjoy and transcend moments. Although anyone can have peak experience, self-actualizers are more frequent. In addition, Maslow believes that self-actualizers tend to be highly creative, autonomous, objective, concerned about human nature, and accepting themselves and others. Maslow argues that some people simply have no motivation to achieve themselves. He illustrates this by distinguishing defective requirements, or D-requirements, including four lower requirements at his level, and as requirements, or B-requirements. Maslow said that D-demand comes from external sources, while B-demand comes from internal sources. According to Maslow, self-actualizers are more motivated to pursue B-needs than non-self-actualizers.

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