现代化理论在20世纪50年代出现,作为对北美和西欧工业社会如何发展的解释。该理论认为,社会在相当可预测的阶段发展,通过这些阶段,社会变得越来越复杂。发展主要取决于技术的输入以及据信因此而产生的一些其他政治和社会变化。社会科学家,主要是白人欧洲血统,在二十世纪中期制定了现代化理论。反映了北美和西欧几百年的历史,并对当时观察到的变化持积极态度,他们提出了一个理论,解释现代化是一个涉及工业化,城市化,合理化,官僚主义,群众化的过程。消费,并采用民主。在这个过程中,前现代或传统社会演变成我们今天所知的当代西方社会。现代化理论认为,这一过程涉及提高正规学校教育的可用性和水平,以及大众媒体的发展,这两者都被认为可以促进民主政治制度的发展。通过现代化的过程,交通和通信变得越来越复杂和容易获得,人口变得更加城市化和移动化,大家庭的重要性下降。同时,个人在经济和社会生活中的重要性也在增加和加剧。随着社会内部劳动分工变得越来越复杂,组织变得官僚化,并且由于这是一个植根于科学和技术理性的过程,宗教在公共生活中会下降。最后,以现金为导向的市场接管作为商品和服务交换的主要机制。由于这是一个由西方社会科学家概念化的理论,它也是以资本主义经济为中心的理论。在西方学术界证实有效,现代化理论长期以来被用作在世界各地实施与西方社会相比被认为“欠”或“未开发”的相同类型的过程和结构的理由。其核心是科学进步,技术发展和合理性,流动性和经济增长是好事并且必须不断瞄准的假设。

新加坡管理大学论文代写:工业管理

Modernization theory emerged in the 1950s as an explanation of how industrial societies in North America and Western Europe developed. The theory holds that society develops at a fairly predictable stage, through which society becomes more complex. Development depends primarily on the input of technology and some other political and social changes that are believed to have arisen. Social scientists, mainly white Europeans, developed modernization theories in the mid-20th century. Reflecting the centuries-old history of North America and Western Europe, and taking a positive attitude towards the changes observed at the time, they put forward a theory that modernization is a process involving industrialization, urbanization, rationalization, bureaucracy, and massification. Consumption and adoption of democracy. In this process, pre-modern or traditional society evolved into the contemporary Western society we know today. Modernization theory believes that this process involves improving the availability and level of formal schooling and the development of mass media, both of which are believed to promote the development of a democratic political system. Through modernization processes, transportation and communications are becoming more complex and accessible, populations become more urbanized and mobile, and the importance of large families declines. At the same time, the importance of individuals in economic and social life is also increasing and exacerbating. As the division of labor within society becomes more complex, organizations become bureaucratic, and because this is a process rooted in scientific and technological rationality, religion declines in public life. Finally, cash-oriented market takeovers serve as the primary mechanism for the exchange of goods and services. Since this is a theory conceptualized by Western social scientists, it is also a theory centered on the capitalist economy. Validated in Western academia, modernization theory has long been used as a reason to implement the same types of processes and structures around the world that are considered “under” or “undeveloped” compared to Western societies. At its core are scientific advances, technological developments and rationality, liquidity and economic growth are good things and must be constantly targeted.

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