人为因素(或人体工程学,人类之间相互作用的科学研究)的一个组成部分是人类的心理构成。人为因素从业者主要关心的是评估人的行为,特别是如果它是可预测的。因此,他们将人类的心理构成分为两个主要的兴趣心理因素:身体和行为。物理感知和感知的心理学处理大脑如何解释来自身体在皮肤,鼻子,耳朵,舌头和眼睛上发现的感觉输入的信号。感觉。通过两种类型的触摸传感器,人类可以通过皮肤获得压力差异的细胞 – 这就是他们的感受。一种传感器类型在大面积上获得一般触摸,例如在手的脚后跟上,而另一种传感器类型更集中和精炼并且拾取边缘的微小变化,例如指尖中的传感器。听力。人类在耳朵中有一系列复杂的装置,可以改变空气的压力,并将其作为声音传递给大脑。大脑的几个区域处理这种处理。闻。人类的鼻子非常敏感,不仅可以检测气味,还可以发出信号,如果周围有危险或有吸引力的东西。看到。人眼的功能几乎是神奇的。专门的细胞拾取三种不同的颜色,光强度和边缘定义,并将这些信号解释为人类感知的图像,提供彩虹般的色彩和深度。品鉴。人类的舌头是一种奇妙的肌肉,上面有受体,可以吸收不同的化学元素,并将它们转化为不同的味道元素,通常分为咸味,甜味,苦味,酸味或鲜味(咸味)。所有这些对人类因素至关重要的感官认知之间的共同点是它们都受到物理手段的刺激。这些物理手段构成了人机界面甚至人类环境界面的一部分。在分析这些人为因素时,了解它们扮演的角色以及它们如何影响人的表现和行为是很重要的。一个人或人口的心理构成的行为方面与激励行动或引起反应的因素有关。因此,人类行为如何以及为什么是重要的数据点。人类行为几乎是经济学和政治学的基础。事实上,经济学实际上是关于研究人们如何对激励做出反应,政治是关于人们如何对竞选演讲做出反应。在人体工程学中,科学家们试图尽可能地使事物变得有效 – 或者经常舒适且易于使用 – 以便可以利用人类行为数据来设计用于人类消费的装置或系统,其中受试者被激励将其用于期望的结果。这常常引出一个问题,“如何确保人类不会因工作而受到伤害?”由人体工程学家研究属于激励和反应行为的类别。如果它导致压力或伤害,重复或其他,可预测的人类行为告诉人体工程学家,人们不会想要这样做,如果他们这样做,他们将不会以最大的人类表现水平运作,并且不会有效。因此,人体工程学家提出的任何建议通常都会排除任何有害建议(因为人类自然会选择避免这些建议)。

新加坡国立大学人体工程学Assignment代写:人体心理学

One component of human factors (or ergonomics, the scientific study of interactions between mankind) is a human’s psychological makeup. Human factors practitioners’ primary concern is evaluating a human’s behavior, especially if it is predictable. Therefore, they break human psychological makeup into two main psychological elements of interests: the physical and the behavioral. The psychology of physical sensing and perceiving deals with how the brain interprets signals from the body’s sensory inputs found on the skin, nose, ears, tongue, and eyes. Feeling. Humans have cells that can pick up on pressure differences along their skin — this is how they feel — via two types of touch sensors. One sensor type picks up a general touch over a large area, such as those on the heel of a hand, while the other is more concentrated and refined and picks up minute changes in edges, such as sensors in the fingertips. Hearing. Humans have a complicated series of devices in the ear that can take changes in the pressure of the air and send it to the brain as a signal that it interprets as sound. Several areas of the brain handle this processing. Smelling. The human nose is amazingly sensitive and not only can detect scents but can also signal if there are dangerous — or attractive things — around. Seeing. The functionality of the human eye is almost magical. Specialized cells pick up three distinct colors, light intensity, and edge definitions and interpret those signals into the images perceived by mankind, providing a rainbow of colors and depth. Tasting. The human tongue is a wondrous muscle studded with receptors that can pick up different chemical elements and translate them into distinct taste elements, typically categorized as salty, sweet, bitter, sour, or umami (savory). The one commonality between all these sensory perceptions that is vital importance to human factors is that they are all stimulated by physical means. These physical means make up part of the human-machine interface and even the human-environments interface. Understanding what role they play and how they can affect both human performance and behavior are important when analyzing those human factors. The behavioral aspect of a person’s or population’s psychological makeup relates to the elements that motivate actions or cause reactions. Therefore, how a human acts and why is an important data point. Human behavior underlies almost everything from economics to politics. In fact, economics is really about studying how people react to incentives and politics is about how people react to campaign speeches. In ergonomics, scientists try to make things as efficient — or oftentimes comfortable and easy to use — as possible so that the human behavior data can be utilized to design a device or system for human consumption wherein the subject is motivated to use it for the desired outcome. This often begs the question, “What about making sure the human doesn’t get hurt through the work?” which falls under the category of motivational and reactive behaviors, studied by ergonomists. If it causes stress or injury, repetitive or otherwise, predictable human behavior tells ergonomists that people won’t want to do it, and if they do, they will not be operating at their maximum human performance level and will not be efficient. Therefore, any proposal made by an ergonomist typically will preclude any harmful suggestions (as humans naturally select to avoid these).

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