Modernization theory emerged in the 1950s as an explanation of how industrial societies in North America and Western Europe developed. The theory holds that society develops at a fairly predictable stage, through which society becomes more complex. Development depends primarily on the input of technology and some other political and social changes that are believed to have arisen. Social scientists, mainly white Europeans, developed modernization theories in the mid-20th century. Reflecting the centuries-old history of North America and Western Europe, and taking a positive attitude towards the changes observed at the time, they put forward a theory that modernization is a process involving industrialization, urbanization, rationalization, bureaucracy, and massification. Consumption and adoption of democracy. In this process, pre-modern or traditional society evolved into the contemporary Western society we know today. Modernization theory believes that this process involves improving the availability and level of formal schooling and the development of mass media, both of which are believed to promote the development of a democratic political system. Through modernization processes, transportation and communications are becoming more complex and accessible, populations become more urbanized and mobile, and the importance of large families declines. At the same time, the importance of individuals in economic and social life is also increasing and exacerbating. As the division of labor within society becomes more complex, organizations become bureaucratic, and because this is a process rooted in scientific and technological rationality, religion declines in public life. Finally, cash-oriented market takeovers serve as the primary mechanism for the exchange of goods and services. Since this is a theory conceptualized by Western social scientists, it is also a theory centered on the capitalist economy. Validated in Western academia, modernization theory has long been used as a reason to implement the same types of processes and structures around the world that are considered “under” or “undeveloped” compared to Western societies. At its core are scientific advances, technological developments and rationality, liquidity and economic growth are good things and must be constantly targeted. Modernization theory has been criticized from the beginning. Many scholars, usually scholars of color and non-Western countries, have pointed out for many years that modernization theory does not explain the way in which Western dependence on colonization, slave labor and theft of land and resources provides wealth and material resources. It is necessary for the speed and scale of Western development (see post-colonial theory for extensive discussion). Therefore, it cannot be copied elsewhere and should not be copied in this way.