自我效能感主要由以下几种信息来源决定:个人经验、观察、说服和情绪。当预测他们在一项新任务中取得成功的能力时,个人往往会回顾他们过去完成类似任务的经历。这些信息通常对我们的自我效能感有很强的影响,这是合乎逻辑的:如果你已经做了很多次事情,你很可能相信你可以再做一次。个人经验因素也解释了为什么提高自我效能可能是困难的。当一个人对某项任务的自我效能感水平很低时,他们通常会回避这项任务,这妨碍他们积累可能最终建立自信的积极经验。当一个人尝试一项新的任务并获得成功时,这种经历可以建立他们的信心,从而产生与类似任务相关的更高水平的自我效能。我们也通过观察别人来判断自己的能力。想象一下,你有一个以教练马铃薯闻名的朋友,然后那个朋友成功地跑了一场马拉松。这个观察可能会让你相信你也能成为一名跑步者。研究人员发现,当我们看到别人通过努力工作,而不是通过天生的能力成功地从事某项活动时,我们对某项活动的自我效能感更有可能提高。例如,如果你在公共场合演讲时自我效能感很低,那么观察一个胆小的人发展这种技能可能有助于提高你的自信心。看着一个天生具有魅力、性格外向的人发表演讲,不太可能产生同样的效果。当我们觉得自己和正在观察的人很相似时,观察他人更有可能影响我们自己的自我效能。然而,一般来说,观察别人并不会像我们个人经历一样影响我们的自我效能感。有时,其他人可能试图通过提供支持和鼓励来提高我们的自我效能。然而,这种类型的说服并不总是对自我效能感有很强的影响,特别是与个人经验的影响相比。班杜拉认为诸如恐惧和焦虑之类的情绪会破坏我们的自我效能感。例如,你可以在闲聊和社交方面有很高的自我效能感,但如果你真的对在特定事件上给人留下好印象感到紧张,你的自我效能感可能会降低。另一方面,积极的情绪可以产生更大的自我效能感。心理学家朱利安·罗特认为,自我效能感与控制源的概念密不可分。控制点是指个人如何确定事件的起因。具有内部控制源的人认为事件是由他们自己的行为引起的。具有外部控制源的人认为事件是由外部力量(例如,其他人或偶然环境)引起的。在成功完成一项任务后,具有内部控制源的个体将比具有外部控制源的个体经历更大的自我效能感提高。换言之,为自己的成功而自夸(而不是声称它们发生是因为你无法控制的因素)更有可能增强你对未来任务的信心。班杜拉的自我效能理论有许多应用,包括治疗恐惧症,提高学术成就,以及发展健康的行为。

新加坡国立大学心理学论文代写:自我能效感

Self-efficacy is mainly determined by the following sources of information: personal experience, observation, persuasion and emotion. When predicting their ability to succeed in a new task, individuals tend to review their past experiences in accomplishing similar tasks. This information usually has a strong impact on our sense of self-efficacy, which is logical: if you have done many things, you probably believe you can do it again. Personal experience also explains why it may be difficult to improve self-efficacy. When a person’s self-efficacy level for a task is very low, they usually avoid the task, which hinders them from accumulating positive experience that may eventually lead to self-confidence. When a person tries a new task and succeeds, the experience builds their confidence and produces a higher level of self-efficacy related to similar tasks. We also judge our abilities by observing others. Imagine that you have a friend who is famous for coaching potatoes, and then that friend runs a marathon successfully. This observation may convince you that you can also become a runner. Researchers have found that when we see others succeed in an activity through hard work rather than through innate ability, we are more likely to improve our self-efficacy in an activity. For example, if you have a low sense of self-efficacy in public speaking, observing a timid person develop this skill may help boost your self-confidence. Watching a naturally attractive, extroverted person make a speech is unlikely to produce the same effect. Observing others is more likely to affect our own self-efficacy when we feel that we are very similar to the person we are observing. In general, however, observing others does not affect our sense of self-efficacy as much as our personal experience does. Sometimes others may try to improve our self-efficacy by providing support and encouragement. However, this type of persuasion does not always have a strong impact on self-efficacy, especially when compared with the impact of personal experience. Bandura believes that emotions such as fear and anxiety can undermine our sense of self-efficacy. For example, you can have a high sense of self-efficacy in chatting and socializing, but if you are really nervous about making a good impression on a particular event, your sense of self-efficacy may decrease. On the other hand, positive emotions can produce a greater sense of self-efficacy. Psychologist Julian Rotter believes that self-efficacy is closely related to the concept of locus of control. Control points refer to how individuals determine the cause of events. People with internal control sources believe that events are caused by their own actions. People with external sources of control believe that events are caused by external forces (e.g., other people or accidental circumstances). After successful completion of a task, individuals with internal control sources experience greater self-efficacy than individuals with external control sources. In other words, bragging about your successes (rather than claiming that they happen because of factors beyond your control) is more likely to boost your confidence in future tasks. Bandura’s self-efficacy theory has many applications, including the treatment of phobia, the improvement of academic achievements, and the development of healthy behavior.

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