只要事件的一系列实际原因被减少或增加到所谓的原因与实际效果之间不再存在真正的,因果关系的点,就会发生称为过度简化和夸大的因果关系谬误。换句话说,多种原因被减少到只有一个或几个(过度简化)或者几个原因被乘以许多(夸大)。也被称为“还原性谬误”,因为它涉及减少原因的数量,过度简化似乎更经常发生,也许是因为有太多表面上很好的理由来简化事物。善意的作家和演说者如果不小心,很容易陷入过度简化的陷阱。简化的一个动力是给所有希望改善写作风格的人提供的基本建议:不要陷入细节之中。良好的写作需要清晰准确,从而帮助人们理解一个问题,而不是让他们更加困惑。然而,在这个过程中,作者可以轻易地遗漏太多细节,省略需要包含的关键信息。另一个可能导致过度简化的重要动力是过度使用批判性思维中的一个重要工具:奥卡姆的剃刀。这是不假设事件的因素或原因太多而不是必要的原则,并且通常表示“更简单的解释是可取的”。虽然解释应该不是必要的复杂,但必须非常小心,不要构造一个不必要的复杂的解释。阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦(Albert Einstein)的一句名言称:“一切都应尽可能简单,但并不简单。”以下是无神论者经常听到的过度简化的一个例子:自公立学校禁止有组织的祷告以来,学校暴力上升,学业成绩下降。因此,应该重新引入祷告,从而改善学业。这一论点显然受到过度简化的影响,因为它假设学校中的问题(暴力增加,学业成绩下降)可归因于一个原因:失去有组织的,国家强制的祈祷。社会中的无数其他因素被完全忽视,好像社会和经济条件没有以任何相关方式改变。在上面的例子中揭示问题的一种方法是稍微改写:自从种族隔离被禁止以来,学校暴力上升,学业成绩下降。

新加坡政府大学Assignment代写:还原性谬误

As long as a series of actual causes of an event are reduced or increased to the point where there is no real, causal relationship between the so-called cause and the actual effect, a causal relationship fall called excessive simplification and exaggeration occurs. In other words, multiple reasons are reduced to only one or a few (oversimplified) or several reasons multiplied by many (exaggerated). Also known as “reduction fallacy”, because it involves reducing the number of causes, excessive simplification seems to occur more often, perhaps because there are too many ostensibly good reasons to simplify things. Well-intentioned writers and speakers can easily fall into the trap of oversimplification if they are not careful. One of the motivations for simplification is to give basic advice to anyone who wants to improve their writing style: don’t fall into the details. Good writing needs to be clear and accurate, helping people understand a problem rather than making them more confused. However, in this process, the author can easily miss too much detail and omit the key information that needs to be included. Another important impetus that could lead to oversimplification is an overuse of an important tool in critical thinking: Occam’s razor. This is a principle that does not assume that the factors or causes of the event are too many and not necessary, and usually means that “a simpler explanation is desirable.” Although the explanation should not be necessary and complicated, it must be very careful not to construct an unnecessary and complicated explanation. Albert Einstein’s famous saying: “Everything should be as simple as possible, but not simple.” The following is an example of oversimplification that atheists often hear: banned from public schools Since the prayer, school violence has risen and academic performance has declined. Therefore, prayer should be reintroduced to improve academics. This argument is clearly influenced by oversimplification because it assumes that problems in schools (increased violence and declining academic performance) can be attributed to one reason: the loss of organized, state-mandated prayers. Numerous other factors in society have been completely ignored, as if social and economic conditions have not changed in any relevant way. One way to reveal the problem in the above example is to slightly rewrite: since apartheid was banned, school violence has risen and academic performance has declined.

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