As long as a series of actual causes of an event are reduced or increased to the point where there is no real, causal relationship between the so-called cause and the actual effect, a causal relationship fall called excessive simplification and exaggeration occurs. In other words, multiple reasons are reduced to only one or a few (oversimplified) or several reasons multiplied by many (exaggerated). Also known as “reduction fallacy”, because it involves reducing the number of causes, excessive simplification seems to occur more often, perhaps because there are too many ostensibly good reasons to simplify things. Well-intentioned writers and speakers can easily fall into the trap of oversimplification if they are not careful. One of the motivations for simplification is to give basic advice to anyone who wants to improve their writing style: don’t fall into the details. Good writing needs to be clear and accurate, helping people understand a problem rather than making them more confused. However, in this process, the author can easily miss too much detail and omit the key information that needs to be included. Another important impetus that could lead to oversimplification is an overuse of an important tool in critical thinking: Occam’s razor. This is a principle that does not assume that the factors or causes of the event are too many and not necessary, and usually means that “a simpler explanation is desirable.” Although the explanation should not be necessary and complicated, it must be very careful not to construct an unnecessary and complicated explanation. Albert Einstein’s famous saying: “Everything should be as simple as possible, but not simple.” The following is an example of oversimplification that atheists often hear: banned from public schools Since the prayer, school violence has risen and academic performance has declined. Therefore, prayer should be reintroduced to improve academics. This argument is clearly influenced by oversimplification because it assumes that problems in schools (increased violence and declining academic performance) can be attributed to one reason: the loss of organized, state-mandated prayers. Numerous other factors in society have been completely ignored, as if social and economic conditions have not changed in any relevant way. One way to reveal the problem in the above example is to slightly rewrite: since apartheid was banned, school violence has risen and academic performance has declined.