首席大法官是美国总统弹劾的法官，包括当美国副总统担任代总统时。首席大法官Salmon P. Chase于1868年主持参议院对安德鲁·约翰逊总统的审判，首席大法官威廉·H·伦奎斯特于1999年主持了威廉·克林顿总统的审判。在日常诉讼中，首席大法官进入法庭首先是在大法官审议时进行第一次投票，并主持法院的闭门会议，对未决的上诉和口头辩论中的案件进行投票。在法庭外，首席大法官向国会提交关于联邦法院系统状况的年度报告，并任命其他联邦法官担任各种行政和司法小组的成员。首席大法官还担任史密森学会的校长，并且是国家美术馆和Hirshhorn博物馆的董事会成员。虽然首席大法官认为首席大法官必须在就职典礼上向美国总统发誓，但这是纯粹的传统角色。根据法律规定，任何联邦或州法官都有权执行誓言，甚至公证人也可以履行职责，就像1923年卡尔文柯立芝宣誓就任总统一样。
The Chief Justice is a judge impeached by the President of the United States, including when the US Vice President served as Acting President. Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presided over the Senate’s trial of President Andrew Johnson in 1868, and Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presided over the trial of President William Clinton in 1999. In daily litigation, the Chief Justice enters the court first, first in the deliberation of the Chancellor, and presides over closed court meetings to vote on pending appeals and oral arguments. Outside the court, the Chief Justice submits an annual report on the state of the federal court system to Congress and appoints other federal judges to serve on various administrative and judicial teams. The Chief Justice also serves as the President of the Smithsonian Institution and is a board member of the National Gallery and the Hirshhorn Museum. Although the Chief Justice believes that the Chief Justice must swear to the President of the United States at the inauguration, this is a purely traditional role. According to the law, any federal or state judge has the right to execute an oath, and even a notary can perform his duties, just as in 1923 Calvin Coolidge was sworn in as president.