现代进化理论综合的一部分涉及种群生物学,并且在更小的层面上涉及群体遗传学。由于进化是以种群内的单位来衡量的,只有种群才能进化而不是个体,因此种群生物学和种群遗传是通过自然选择进化论的复杂部分。当查尔斯达尔文首次发表他的进化和自然选择思想时,尚未发现遗传学领域。由于追踪等位基因和遗传学是人口生物学和群体遗传学中非常重要的一部分,达尔文并没有完全涵盖他的书中的这些想法。现在,凭借更多的技术和知识,我们可以将更多的人口生物学和群体遗传纳入进化论。这样做的一种方法是通过等位基因的合并。人口生物学家研究基因库和人群中所有可用的等位基因。然后,他们试图追溯这些等位基因的起源,以便了解它们的起始位置。等位基因可以通过系统发育树上的各种谱系追溯到它们聚合或重新聚集的位置(另一种观察方式是等位基因彼此分支)。特征总是在称为最近共同祖先的点上合并。在最近的共同祖先之后,等位基因分离并演变成新的特征,并且很可能是种群产生新物种。与Hardy-Weinberg均衡非常相似的聚结理论有一些假设可以通过偶然事件消除等位基因的变化。聚结理论假设没有随机遗传流或等位基因进入或离开群体的遗传漂移,自然选择在给定时间段内对选定群体不起作用,并且没有重组等位基因形成新的或更复杂的等位基因。如果这是正确的,那么可以找到两个不同类似物种谱系的最新共同祖先。如果上述任何一个在起作用,那么在最新的共同祖先可以针对这些物种确定之前,必须克服几个障碍。随着技术和对聚结理论的理解变得更容易获得,伴随它的数学模型已被调整。对数学模型的这些改变使得人口生物学和群体遗传学中的一些先前的抑制性和复杂性问题得到了解决,然后可以使用该理论来使用和检查所有类型的种群。

新西兰梅西大学生物学论文代写:种群生物学

Part of the synthesis of modern evolutionary theory involves population biology and involves population genetics on a smaller scale. Since evolution is measured in units within a population, only populations can evolve rather than individuals, so population biology and population inheritance are complex parts of evolutionary theory through natural selection. When Charles Darwin first published his thoughts on evolution and natural selection, he had not yet discovered the field of genetics. Since tracking alleles and genetics are a very important part of population biology and population genetics, Darwin does not fully cover these ideas in his book. Now, with more technology and knowledge, we can incorporate more population biology and population genetics into evolution. One way to do this is through the combination of alleles. Population biologists study gene banks and all available alleles in the population. They then attempted to trace the origin of these alleles in order to understand their starting position. Alleles can be traced back to their location of aggregation or reaggregation through various lineages on the phylogenetic tree (another way of viewing is that the alleles branch to each other). Features are always merged at points called the most recent common ancestor. After the recent common ancestor, the alleles are separated and evolve into new features, and it is likely that the population produces new species. The coalescence theory, which is very similar to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, has some assumptions that can eliminate allelic changes by chance. The coalescence theory assumes that there is no genetic drift of random genetic flows or alleles entering or leaving the population, natural selection does not work for selected populations in a given time period, and no recombinant alleles form new or more complex Gene. If this is true, then the latest common ancestor of two different similar species pedigrees can be found. If any of the above is working, then several obstacles must be overcome before the latest common ancestor can be identified for these species. As technology and understanding of coalescence theory become more readily available, the mathematical model that accompanies it has been adjusted. These changes to mathematical models have solved some of the previous inhibitory and complexity issues in population biology and population genetics, which can then be used to examine and examine all types of populations.

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