在古典悲剧中,悲剧的缺陷是导致主人公做出最终导致悲剧的选择的个人品质或特征。悲剧的概念可以追溯到亚里士多德的诗学。在《诗学》中,亚里士多德用“哈马蒂亚”这个词来指代主人公走向自己堕落的内在品质。“致命缺陷”一词有时被用来代替悲剧性的缺陷。值得注意的是,悲剧的缺陷和哈马蒂亚都不一定意味着主人公的道德失败。相反,它指的是特定的品质(好或坏),导致主角作出某些决定,反过来,使悲剧不可避免。例子:莎士比亚戏剧的题材主人公哈姆雷特·哈姆雷特的悲剧瑕疵,是古典文学中悲剧瑕疵教导最多、最清晰的例子之一。尽管快速阅读该剧可能暗示,哈姆雷特的疯狂——无论是假装的还是真实的——是他垮台的罪魁祸首,但他真正的悲剧缺陷是过于犹豫。哈姆雷特迟疑不决的行为导致了他的垮台,也导致了整个戏剧的悲剧性结局。在整个剧本中,哈姆雷特在内心挣扎着是否应该报复并杀死克劳迪斯。他的一些顾虑被解释得很清楚,比如当他放弃一个特别的计划时,因为他不想在祈祷时杀死克劳迪斯,从而确保克劳迪斯的灵魂能上天堂。他也有理由首先关心根据鬼魂的话采取行动。但即使他拥有所有的证据,他仍然采取迂回的方式。因为哈姆雷特犹豫不决,克劳迪斯有时间自己编剧情节,当两套计划发生冲突时,悲剧就接踵而至,夺走了大部分主角。这是一个悲剧的本质并不是道德败坏的例子。在某些情况下,犹豫不决是件好事;事实上,人们可以想象其他古典悲剧(例如,奥赛罗,或罗密欧和朱丽叶),犹豫不决本来可以避免悲剧的发生。然而,在《哈姆雷特》中,犹豫不决是错误的,它导致了一系列悲剧性的事件。因此,哈姆雷特的犹豫不决态度是一个明显的悲剧缺陷。例子:Oedipus the King的悲剧缺陷。悲剧的概念起源于希腊悲剧。俄狄浦斯,索福克勒斯,是一个最好的例子。在剧本的早期,俄狄浦斯收到一个预言,他将杀死他的父亲,娶他的母亲,但是,拒绝接受这一点,他开始了自己的。他傲慢的拒绝被看作是对上帝权威的拒绝,使骄傲或傲慢成为他悲剧结局的根源。俄狄浦斯有几次机会收回他的行为,但他的骄傲不让他这么做。即使他开始了他的探险,他仍然可以避免悲剧,如果他不是那么肯定,他最清楚。最终,他的傲慢导致他向众神挑战——这是希腊悲剧中的一个重大错误——并且坚持被告知他永远不应该知道的信息。俄狄浦斯的骄傲是如此之大,以至于他相信他知道得更好,他能够处理任何事情,但是当他得知他父母的真相时,他彻底崩溃了。这是一个悲剧性缺陷的例子,它也被描绘成一个客观的道德负面:俄狄浦斯的自尊心是过度的,即使没有悲剧的弧线,这本身也是失败的。

新西兰梅西大学文学Essay代写:古典悲剧

In classical tragedies, the defects of tragedy are the personal qualities or characteristics that lead the protagonist to make the final choice leading to tragedy. The concept of tragedy can be traced back to Aristotle’s poetry. In Poetics, Aristotle uses the word “Hamathia” to refer to the inner qualities of the protagonist towards his own degeneration. The term “fatal defect” is sometimes used to replace tragic defects. It is worth noting that neither the defects of the tragedy nor Hamathia necessarily mean the moral failure of the hero. On the contrary, it refers to certain qualities (good or bad), which lead the protagonist to make certain decisions and, in turn, make tragedy inevitable. Examples: Hamlet Hamlet, the protagonist of Shakespeare’s plays, is one of the most clear examples of tragic defects in classical literature. Although a quick reading of the play may suggest that Hamlet’s insanity, whether pretended or real, was the culprit of his downfall, his real tragic flaw was too hesitant. Hamlet’s hesitant behavior led to his collapse and the tragic ending of the whole drama. Throughout the play, Hamlet struggled to decide whether he should retaliate and kill Claudius. Some of his concerns were clearly explained, such as when he gave up a special plan, because he did not want to kill Claudius in prayer, so as to ensure that Claudius’soul could go to heaven. He also has reason to be concerned about acting on the ghost’s words first. But even if he had all the evidence, he still took a roundabout approach. Because Hamlet hesitated, Claudius had time to write his own plot. When the two plans clashed, tragedies ensued, taking most of the main characters. This is an example of a tragedy whose essence is not moral corruption. In some cases, indecision is a good thing; in fact, one can imagine other classical tragedies (e.g., Othello, or Romeo and Juliet) that indecision could have avoided tragedy. However, hesitation is wrong in Hamlet, which leads to a series of tragic events. Therefore, Hamlet’s hesitant attitude is an obvious tragic defect. Example: Oedipus the King’s tragic flaw. The concept of tragedy originated from Greek tragedy. Oedipus, Sophocles, is the best example. Early in the script, Oedipus received a prediction that he would kill his father and marry his mother, but refused to accept it, and he began his own life. His arrogant refusal was regarded as a refusal to God’s authority, making pride or arrogance the root of his tragic ending. Oedipus had several opportunities to retract his actions, but his pride did not allow him to do so. Even if he started his adventure, he could still avoid tragedy. If he wasn’t so sure, he knew it best. Ultimately, his arrogance led him to challenge the gods — a major mistake in Greek tragedy — and insist on being told the information he should never know. Oedipus was so proud that he believed he knew better and could handle anything, but when he learned the truth about his parents, he completely collapsed. This is an example of a tragic defect, which is also portrayed as an objective moral negative: Oedipus’s self-esteem is excessive, and even without the arc of tragedy, it is itself a failure.

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