对罗马帝国的研究对于理解中世纪的欧洲非常重要,但即使其“衰落”的日期可以无可辩驳地确定,它作为一个决定性因素的地位也不再具有它曾经拥有的影响力。公元1453年,东罗马帝国在其首都君士坦丁堡入侵土耳其人时落下帷幕。与西方终点不同,这个日期没有争议,尽管拜占庭帝国已经缩小了几个世纪,而且在君士坦丁堡沦陷时,已经超过两百年来仅仅是大城市本身。然而,与拜占庭一样重要的是中世纪研究,将其视为一个决定因素是误导。在其高峰时期,东部帝国包含的现代欧洲比西部帝国更少。此外,虽然拜占庭文明影响了西方文化和政治的进程,但帝国仍然非常谨慎地与在西方发展,失败,融合和交战的动荡不安,充满活力的社会分开。帝国作为中世纪研究的一个明显特征的选择还有另一个重大缺陷:在整个中世纪的过程中,没有真正的帝国在任何相当长的时间内都包含了欧洲的重要部分。查理曼成功地将现代法国和德国的大部分地区联合起来,但他所建立的国家在他去世后仅仅两代就闯入派系。神圣罗马帝国既不称为神圣帝国,也不称为罗马帝国,也不称帝国,其皇帝当然对查理曼所实现的土地没有任何控制权。然而,帝国的沦陷在我们对中世纪的看法中徘徊不前。人们不禁注意到日期476和1453与500和1500的接近程度。

英国历史文学Essay代写:拜占庭帝国

The study of the Roman Empire was very important for understanding the Middle Ages in Europe, but even if the date of its “decline” could be determined indisputably, its status as a decisive factor no longer had the influence it once had. In 1453, the Eastern Roman Empire came to an end when it invaded the Turks in its capital, Constantinople. Unlike the Western end, this date is not controversial, although the Byzantine Empire has been shrinking for centuries, and in the fall of Constantinople, it has been only the big city itself for more than two hundred years. However, as important as Byzantium is medieval research, and it is misleading to regard it as a determining factor. At its peak, the Eastern Empire contained less modern Europe than the Western Empire. Moreover, although Byzantine civilization has influenced the course of Western culture and politics, the empire is still very cautiously separated from the turbulent, dynamic society of development, failure, integration and engagement in the West. There is another major flaw in the choice of the Empire as an obvious feature of medieval studies: no real empire has included important parts of Europe for any length of time throughout the Middle Ages. Charlemagne succeeded in uniting modern France with most of Germany, but the country he founded broke into factions only two generations after his death. The Holy Roman Empire is neither called the Holy Empire, nor the Roman Empire, nor the Empire. Its emperor certainly does not have any control over the land that Charlemagne has achieved. However, the fall of the empire faltered in our view of the Middle Ages. One can’t help but notice the proximity of dates 476 and 1453 to 500 and 1500.

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